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Title: 《南島時報》原住民族文化公民權建構之批判論述分析
A Critical Analysis of the Indigenous Cultural Citizenship Construction in Austronesian News
Authors: 董秀蘭
Doong, Shiow-Lan
Yao, Chu-Yin
Keywords: 南島時報
Austronesian News
Indigenous Peoples
Cultural Citizenship
Critical Discourse Analysis
Issue Date: 2016
Abstract: 《南島時報》作為全國第一份以「南島」為族群意識發聲的原住民族自辦報紙,自有其不可抹滅的歷史意義,除了彰顯原住民族自我掌握文化公民權的價值,更延續臺灣原住民族運動的精神,解構長期以來漢文化意識型態對於原住民族的霸權論述,重新建構自我族群的主體發言位置。 本研究係採Fairlough社會學取徑的批判論述分析方法,並納入後殖民批判理論觀點,輔以深度訪談,論證《南島時報》的歷史構成、社會關係、產製過程、主題脈絡、書寫抵抗、雙重意識等議題面向,以及《南島時報》如何建構原住民族群的文化樣貌,實踐原住民族文化公民權。經歸納《南島時報》的論述建構,包括「建構泛原住民族的族群認同觀點」、「走出悲情的原運」、「跳脫國家的神話」、「發揮2%關鍵少數的政治力量」、「土地與經濟是民族自治的物質基礎」、「建構以原住民族為主體的教育制度與傳播媒體」等六大主題,其中蘊含的文化公民權內涵,包括「解構文化霸權的多元族群權」、「奪回物質資源的自治權」以及「發揮關鍵少數力量的特殊代表權」等意涵。 此外,亦從後殖民視角,探析《南島時報》呈現20世紀末臺灣原住民族社會的多重殖民處境,同時探討該報如何以書寫作為文化抵抗,重構殖民者的知識權力、翻轉統治者的政治控制權力以及拆解主流媒體的論述權力。再者,藉由Freire提出壓迫者也有雙重意識,強調身為既得利益族群應解構自我(壓迫者)的文化霸權意識。換言之,原住民族文化公民權是一種互為主體的權利,不是侷限在詮釋原住民族基本權利,主流族群更有相對的責任,以一種新的世界觀共生共存。最後,本研究論證泛原住民族的族群認同論述實踐與國家政治的辯證關係、原住民族菁英觀點與霸權論述的辯證、以及論述雙重性如何轉化受壓迫者的雙重意識,並強調讓原運傳承在校園裡深耕,重申原住民族自主經營新聞報的意義。
Austronesian News, the first indigenous newspaper that speaks for and as “austronesian peoples” in Taiwan, has its indelible historical meanings. These meanings include: to demonstrate the value of indigenous peoples possessing cultural citizenship, to extend the spirit of indigenous movement in Taiwan, to deconstruct the long-term hegemonic discourse of Han-culture ideology over indigenous peoples, and to reconstruct the speaking position for racial groups. This study uses Fairlough’s critical discourse analysis method with sociology approach, takes post-colonial critical theory into account, and combines with in-depth interviews as research methods. The research disserts issues about Austronesian News such as its development background, social relations, process of production, subject contexts, writing resistance, and dual ideology. The study also investigates how Austronesian News constructs cultural appearances of indigenous groups and carries out indigenous cultural citizenship. Analyzing the discourse structures of Austronesian News, six topics are induced: “constructing group identification of pan-indigenous people”, “to free oneself from the sadness of indigenous movement”, “seeing through the myth of nation”, “using political power of crucial minority of 2%”, “land and economy are material bases for racial autonomy”, and “developing indigens-centered education system and mass media”. Three concepts of cultural citizenship are embedded in these topics: “deconstructing the diverse racial rights given by culture hegemony”, “retrieving autonomy for material resources”, and “performing the special representation of crucial minority”. In addition, from post-colonial point of view, the research examines how Austronesian News presents the multiple colonial situations of indigenous peoples in late 20th- century Taiwan society, and how the newspaper uses writing as cultural resistance, reconstructs knowledge power of colonizers, overturns the political authority of dominators, and takes apart the discourse power of dominant media. Furthermore, as Freire states that oppressors also have dual ideology, the study highlights the need for vested interest holders to deconstruct their cultural hegemonic ideology as oppressors. In other words, indigenous cultural citizenship should be a right of being the main part mutually, not just the explanations of indigenous basic rights. It is the dominant group’s responsibility to hold a new global view to live with indigenous peoples together. Finally, this study disserts the dialectical relations between state politics and the application of pan-indigenous identity statement, the dialectics between indigenous elite perspective and hegemony discourse, and how duality transforms the dual ideology hold by repressors. The researcher emphasizes on the importance of continuing indigenous movement in schools and restates the significant meaning of a newspaper published by indigenous peoples.
Other Identifiers: G0896070051
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