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Title: 貝登堡《童子警探》之研究
The Study of Baden-Powell Revealed on Scouting for Boys
Authors: 王錦雀
Wang, Chin-Chueh
Lee, Chen-Lin
Keywords: 貝登堡
Scouting for Boys
Scout Movement
Issue Date: 2016
Abstract: 童軍運動在歐美各國皆是在社區發起,然在臺灣是進行的童軍運動俱有中國近代歷史和政治的包袱進入校園,經時代演進,學校正規教育的童軍科是有其名,其童軍內涵早己不復存在。若由生活教育的隔宿露營,因政府法令學校需公開招標使得學校所辦理的隔宿露營委由旅行社辦理,令人懷疑真有童軍教育於其中,還是一般戶外活動教育。童軍運動主要的童軍團,學校童軍團應體制關係已經式微;社區團軍團大多徧離童軍本質,成為徒具形式的童軍運動,故本研究回歸童軍運動的基本面,即為童軍創辦人貝登堡為童軍運動所著的第一本書《童子警探》進行分析。本研究目的有三:一、探討19世紀的英國歷史背景、貝登堡的生平與《童子警探》的緣起。二、經由《童子警探》分析貝登堡3Hs的教育思維和理想主張。三、探討後世對於《童子警探》之評價。 本研究採用文件分析法與詮釋學來分析貝登堡的思想觀點。文件資料主要來自貝登堡傳記、信件和表說影片來瞭解19世紀的英國社會和《童子警探》出版之緣起並知曉後世的評價。再經對應《童子警探》內文由詮釋學來詮釋貝登堡思想觀點。由歷史背景可知19世紀的英國在世界有著「日不落國」的稱號,但已經發生社會、文化與國家的問題,引起教育界的關注,欲改善道德低落問題和提升公民意識。由貝登堡幼時生活和軍旅生涯中所發展的警探術,勾勒出童軍活動的場域、內容、價值和精神,撰寫出《童子警探》後,不僅引發英國社會熱烈迴響,亦成就全球的童軍運動。貝登堡所堅信的3Hs觀點-快樂、健康、有用的公民。(一)快樂:自娛這最低層級的快樂,瞭解他人所需並扶助他人和服務社會方能獲得幸福。(二)健康:擁有健全的體格和健康的心理並懂得照顧自我,才有能力完成自己想要做的事。當知健康不是自己一個人的事,而是關於全國的事。(三)有用的公民:不麻煩他人、不成為社會負擔-即為有工作和去奢節儉-有自我的信念和服務他人,方能稱為一名有的公民。 《童子警探》反映帝國衰敗的主因是工業化的結果,使人民有不健康的身心和不良的生活習慣;反應出公學校的失能,徧重學科未教導學生如何生活。此書有著濃厚的軍國主義意識形態,愛國情操成為主要的公民意識。但由後來的童軍運動可以發現童軍活動正可解決工業化的負面影響和學校問題;雖有軍事意象,實為教育活動。愛國心只是公民意識的一部分,個人自我發展和公民教育是童軍運動的重點。19世紀的社會形態、貝登堡的生平與《童子警探》的緣起、貝登堡的3Hs觀點和《童子警探》對後世的影響和評價為本研究三大結論與貢獻。建議童軍參與人員、大眾、學校教職人員與教育行政人員應瞭解《童子警探》的內涵和貝登堡的觀點,使童軍運動的價值和精神真正落實在臺灣上,而非徒具形式。 關鍵詞:貝登堡、《童子警探》、童軍運動
Scout movement is developing at community in all European countries and America, whereas it is developing at schools because of Chinese historical and political consideration. Time is changed. The scouting course in formal education now only have its name; however, its connotations has already gone. Regarding to overnight camping in informal education is carried out by travel agencies because of Enforcement Rules of the Government Procurement Act. The main question is that overnight camping is integrated by scouting education, or just as an outdoor education. Scout troop is a main body in Scout Movement, a troop in schools is declining due to current educational system; on the other hand, a troop in communities is departing from the essence of scouting in majority. Scout movement is becoming only has a scouting formation without its sole in Taiwan. Returning to the foundation of scouting as Scouting for Boys, this book is written by Baden-Powell who is founder of Scout movement it the world, and Scouting for Boys is the first book written for Scout movement. Therefore, the purpose of this research was that 1. to understand the historical background of Great Britain in 19th century, Baden-Powell’ life, and why and how Scouting for Boys was published. 2. to analyze Baden-Powell’s educational thought of 3Hs. 3. to understand people in 20th and 21st centuries evaluated Scouting for Boys. This research was analyzed by Document analysis and Hermeneutics. Document analysis was understanding the British society and the main reason why Scouting for Boys was published through many biographies of Baden-Powell, letters, and his speeches in videos. It also enabled research to know how people evaluated this book and this movement. Baden-Powell’s perspective of 3Hs was interpreted by Hermeneutics through the contents of Scouting for Boys. From historical background in 19th century, Great Britain was entitled “Empire on which the sun never set.” However, its social, cultural and national issues had been triggered, and it had evoked educational attention which wanted to improve the problem of moral deterioration, and enhanced the citizenship of populations. Scouting was developing from Baden-Powell’s childhood and his military career which outlined the activities fields, contents, value and spirit of scouting. Moreover, Scouting for Boys was appeared and positively influenced in the British society. This book has been created a globe movement --- Scout Movement. The movement has represented Baden-Powell’ main thoughts of 3Hs, which were “Happy,” “Health,” and “Helpful citizens.” Happy, firstly, was to know what people needs and to help them and society which was the top level of happiness rather that self-amused. Health in the secondary was to have well physique, great fitness and mind, and to know how to look after himself which enabled individuals to complete the task he wanted. Health was not a personal business. Individuals’ health associated with national power. Helpful citizens, finally, were not bother others and did not become social encumbrance. It means that have a vocation and know thrifty in life. Individuals had their beliefs and were able to help others which could be called a usefulman. Scouting for Boys reflected the British empire deterioration resulted by industrialization. People had unhealthy body and mind, and wrong habits. Public schools were dysfunction which over emphasized on academic fields and did not teach students how to live. This book also had very strong ideology of militarism. Patriotism became a major citizenship. Consequently, scouting could solve negative impacts from industrialization, and schools’ problems. Although Scouting has military image; in fact, it is educational activities. Patriotism is a part of citizenship. Individual development and civic education are an important point in Scout movement. The British social circumstance in 19th century and the reason of Scouting for Boys published, Baden-Powell’s perspective of 3Hs, and evaluation of Scouting for Boys were three major conclusions and contributions in this research. Researcher suggests all scouts regardless their age, genders and positions, the public, teachers and official members in schools or government, and educational administrant in government need to fully understand the connotation of Scouting for Boys and Baden-Powell's educational perspective, so that it allows the value and spirit of Scout movement to truly practice in Taiwan, not mere formality. Key words: Baden-Powell, Scouting for Boys, Scout Movement
Other Identifiers: G060207016E
Appears in Collections:學位論文

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