Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://rportal.lib.ntnu.edu.tw:80/handle/20.500.12235/88112
Title: 跨越性取向的校園對話:技專女同志學生性取向認同發展與校園同異互動經驗之研究
Authors: 黃玉
劉杏元
Keywords: 女同志學生
性取向認同
校園同異互動經驗
容忍與涵化
異性戀主義
適配
Issue Date: 2005
Abstract: 跨越性取向的校園對話: 技專女同志學生性取向認同發展與校園同異互動經驗之研究 摘要 本研究旨在探討高等教育校園脈絡中女同志學生性取向認同發展,並依據校園環境的理論觀點,從同異互動的角度切入,理解不同觀點同異互動經驗與女同志學生性取向認同發展之關係。研究發問如下:(一)高等教育女同志學生之性取向認同發展歷程與內涵為何?(二)高等教育女同志學生主觀的校園同異互動經驗為何?(三)高等教育異性戀學生對女同志學生,於校園同異互動之主觀經驗為何?(四)高等教育異性戀教師對女同志學生,於校園同異互動之主觀經驗為何? 本研究採社會建構論的觀點,以質化研究取徑,透過參與觀察、深度訪談,並輔以焦點團體,以北部某技術學院女同志學生及與其有互動經驗的異性戀師生為研究對象,共訪問十一位女同志學生、八位異性戀女學生、五位異性戀教師及一次12人的焦點團體,以紮根理論作為資料分析策略。研究發現如下: 一、女同志學生性取向認同歷程與內涵: (一)女同志學生性取向認同發展歷程有其階段性,階段間具循環特 性,屬非線性模式。 (二)女同志學生性取向認同發展具流動性及多樣性,除了認同自己是 同性戀外,也包含雙性戀認同。 (三)女同志學生必須先有同性戀的概念,才會產生同性戀認同的覺 察。 (四)告白代表向自己現身,是女同志學生發展同性戀認同的重要關鍵 事件。 (五)內化同性戀恐懼症阻礙女同志學生性取向認同,形成自傷行為。 (六)因同性戀污名的影響,女同志學生衣櫃風險的權衡大都來自對他 人態度的想像,污名處理結果影響內化恐同的嚴重程度。 (七)相較於國小、國中校園,技專女校校園,是較能接納女同志學生 的友善環境,可減緩女同志學生內化的恐同。 (八)女同志學生T婆角色的扮演,從「學習圈內文化」、「伴侶相處 的協調」與「性生活展現」三大面向進行試探、提議、討價還價 與翻轉的可能。 二、女同志學生主觀的校園同異互動經驗 透過Moos社會氣氛理論分析,以物理環境、組織因素、群體共同特質與社會氣氛四個面向的討論,可清楚呈現女同志學生校園同異互動的主觀經驗及性取向發展的需求。 (一)物理環境:女同志學生面對緊密的宿舍衣櫃,她們花去大部分的 時間與精力,因應宿舍物理環境所形成的人/我互動的干擾,並 採取空間管理及人際管理兩大因應策略,以能同時滿足安全感及 性取向認同。 (二)組織因素:除宿舍物理環境的因素,使宿舍空間成為透明的衣櫃 外,也不可忽略父權體制下女生宿舍,學校以代理父權之責進行 情慾監控。研究場域開設同志議題課程,對同志議題,漸漸從保 守傳統走向接納,是組織改變及革新的一大步。但授課教師面臨 主流異性戀主義抗拒及缺乏資源的困擾。 (三)群體共同特質:女同志學生從社團中找到歸屬,營造的群體共同 特質讓女同志學生感受與社團環境的適配,就如家一樣的溫暖。 雖運動型社團較能接納同志性取向,但並非所有女同志學生都對 運動型社團有興趣。 (四)校園氣氛:女同志學生進入學校場域後,校園女同志現身,傳達 整體校園環境對同志族群的友善態度,讓女同志學生可因全體住 宿的生活,暫時拋開家庭衣櫃的束縛,自在的探索性取向。 三、異性戀女學生對女同志學生,於校園同異互動之主觀經驗 (一)異性戀女學生初接觸女同志學生的反應,包括「拒絕、嫌惡,感 覺不舒服」、「震驚、害怕,而堅拒自己成為同志」、「容忍, 但期待她變回異性戀」、「支持,並視同志是常見也是正常」。 (二)異性戀女學生與女同志學生接觸內涵及多次接觸經驗,是改變對 同志族群偏見的重要因素。 (三)友誼關係的延續與鞏固,是異性戀同儕走向對同志族群涵化態度 的途徑。 (四)校園恐同的氣氛影響友誼關係建立,阻礙對同志族群正向態度的 發展。 四、異性戀教師對女同志學生,於校園同異互動之主觀經驗 (一)異性戀教師與女同志學生邂逅歷程:從「看不見到遠距離觀 望」、「試圖接觸」到「暫時擱置異性戀主義,開始對話」。 (二)異性戀教師難啟動與女同志學生的對話,而以遠距離觀望及試圖 接觸的方式,卻傳達異性戀主義的恐同氛圍,讓女同志學生離得 更遠,而暫時擱置異性戀主義,才有機會與女同志學生展開對 話。 (三)異性戀教師面臨異性戀主義的衝突與掙扎,而掙扎是貼近女同志 學生的契機,但也因異性戀主義形成「假性同性戀」及「不鼓勵 也不反對」的迷思,而形成師生關係的疏離。 (四)異性戀教師深受異性戀主義所困擾,困擾的來源,除了自身根深 蒂固的意識型態外,校園環境(異性戀教師同儕、異性戀學生及 整體學校價值)及社會(家長的期待)的異性戀主義,不但阻斷稍 有鬆動的異性戀預設,更強化原有的異性戀主義。 依據研究發現,本研究結果與討論,提出以下四點結論: (一)女同志學生性取向發展,是確認與再確認的循環歷程; (二)學校是家也是枷; (三)交融與疏離的同儕同異互動關係; (四)難以貼近,有距離的師生關係。本研究亦根據上述研究結果,針 對國家政策、高等教育學生事務工作、多元文化校園方案及進一 步研究提出具體建議。 關鍵字:女同志學生、性取向認同、校園同異互動經驗、容忍與 涵化、異性戀主義、適配
Dialogues on Campus beyond Sexual identity: The Development of Sexual Identity of Lesbian Students in Institute of Technology and the Experience of Lesbians and Heterosexuals Interaction on Campus Hsing-Yuan Liu Abstract The study was a qualitative research, which was based on the perspective of social construction theory. By means of participant observation, in-depth interview and focus group, the researcher studied the lesbian students of an institute of technology in northern Taiwan and heterosexual teachers and students who had interacted with these lesbian students as the research targets. The participants of the study consisted of 11 lesbian students, 8 heterosexual female students, 5 heterosexual teachers and a focus group of 12 people. The strategy of data analysis was based on grounded theory. The research findings are: 1. The process and content of development in the sexual identity of lesbian students: (1) The development of the sexual identity of lesbian students is formed in sequential stages; however, these stages are of circular rather than linear model. (2) The development of sexual orientation identification of lesbian students is fluctuant and diverse. The lesbian students identify not only with homosexuality but also with bisexual identity. (3) The lesbian students must have the concept of homosexuality, then could become aware of the homosexual identity. (4) The declaration of their identities to themselves is the crucial incident when lesbian students develop homosexual identity. (5) Internalized homophobia hinders lesbian students’ sexual identity and results in self-injurious behaviors. (6) Due to the effect of stigma of homosexuality, the lesbian students’ weighting consideration of the closet risk derives from their imagination of others’ attitude. The results of dealing with the stigma influence the degree of internalized homophobia. (7) Comparing to elementary schools and junior high schools, the campus of women’s technology institute is a friendly environment, which is more likely to accept lesbian students. The lesbian students’ internalized homophobia can thus be reduced. (8) In order to role play the Butch-Femme, the lesbian students proceed with exploration, negotiation, bargain and reverse from three dimensions of “learning of the lesbian culture”, “compatibility with the partners” and “expression of sexual life”. 2. Lesbian students’ subjective experience of lesbian and heterosexual interaction on campus: The discussion of four dimensions of physical environments, organizational environments, human aggregates and social climates of the analysis of Moos’ theory of social climate can clearly express lesbian students’ subjective experience of lesbian and heterosexual interaction on campus and the needs of development in sexual identity. (1) Physical environment: When facing the tight closets of the dormitory, the lesbian students spend most of the time and energy responding to the interference of human/self interaction in the physical environment and employ space management and interpersonal management as the strategies to fulfill both the sense of security and sexual identity. (2) Organizational environment: The physical environment of the dormitory transforms the space into a transparent closet. Besides, one should also consider the point that under the system of patriarchy, the school proceeds with the supervision of sexual passion in female dormitory on behalf of patriarchy. The research school hosts the courses in the issue of homosexuality, and gradually accepts the related issues from the previous conservative attitude. It is a big step for organizational change and reformation. However, the teachers of these courses still face the resistance of mainstream heterosexuals and the lack of resources. (3) Human aggregates: The lesbian students experience the sense of belonging in the sports clubs, which are warm as their homes. Although sports clubs are more likely to accept the lesbians’ sexual identity, not all lesbian students are interested in sports clubs. (4) Campus climates: After entering the schools, due to the coming out of the lesbians on campus and the campus’ friendly attitude toward lesbians, the lesbian students can temporarily release from the constraint of family closet and freely explore their sexual identity in the lives with groups. 3. Heterosexual female students’ subjective experience on their interaction with lesbian students on campus (1) The heterosexual female students’ initial reaction toward lesbian students includes “refusal, disgust and uneasiness, “being shocked, afraid and refusal to become lesbians”, “being tolerant but expect lesbians to become heterosexual” and “being supportive and regarding lesbians as common and normal group”. (2) The contact and continued contact experiences of heterosexual female students’ with lesbian students are the crucial factors to change their prejudice toward homosexual group. (3) The continuity and firmness of friendship are the paths of the heterosexual group’s nurturance attitude toward homosexual group. (4) The homophobia climate on campus affects the establishment of friendship with the lesbians and hinders the development of positive attitude toward homosexual group. 4. Heterosexual teachers’ subjective experience on their interaction with lesbian students on campus (1) The process of the contact between heterosexual teachers and lesbian students are: from“ being invisible to seeing with far distance”, “attempting to contact with each other” to “temporarily hanging over the heterosexism and starting to have dialogues”. (2) The heterosexual teachers have difficulty to initiate dialogues with lesbian students.The seeing from long distance and attempt of contact result in the climate of homophobia of heterosexism, which isolates lesbian students. Only temporarily hanging over the heterosexism can make the heterosexual teachers start to have dialogue with lesbian students. (3) The heterosexual teachers face the conflict and struggle with the heterosexism. However, the struggle is the starting point to be close to lesbian students, the heterosexism also makes the teachers become the myth of “pseudo-homosexual” and “not encouraging and not opposing” which result in the distance between the teachers and lesbian students. (4) The heterosexual teachers are profoundly disturbed by heterosexism. The factors include in their own long-standing ideology, the environment of the school (colleagues of heterosexual teachers, heterosexual students and the school-wide values) and heterosexism of the society (the parents’ expectation). These factors not only hinder the slightly fluctuated assumption of heterosexism but also reinforce the original heterosexism. Based upon the research finding and discussion, the researcher proposes the following four conclusions: (1) The development of lesbian students’ sexual orientation is the circular process of confirmation and reconfirmation (2) The school resemble both of the family and the pillory. (3) Compatible and isolation lesbian and heterosexual student interaction. (4) Hard and distant relationship between heterosexual teachers and lesbian students. Based on the conclusions, the concrete recommendations for national policies, student affair of higher education, the program of multicultural on campus and the further studies are presented. Keywords: lesbian student, sexual identity, experience of lesbian and heterosexual interaction on campus, tolerance and nurturance, heterosexism, congruence
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