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Title: 國小高年級學生身體意象與飲食行為之相關因素研究-以台北市北投區國小為例
Authors: 陳政友
Keywords: 國小高年級學生
the 5th to 6th Grade elementary school students
body image
dieting behaviors
Issue Date: 2011
Abstract: 本研究旨在瞭解國小學生飲食行為現況,並探討背景變項及身體意象與飲食行為相關情形,以及對飲食行為的預測力。研究母群體為臺北市北投區國小高年級學童,以分層集束抽樣法進行取樣,並利用自編結構式問卷蒐集資料,共得有效問卷464份,研究結果得以下重要發現: 一、研究對象之實際體型以「適中」者居多,「過輕」者最少。約有近三成的人自覺體型過重(含肥胖),且期望偏向較瘦的體型。 二、研究結果顯示女生對身體各部位滿意度較低,但較重視自己的外表;體型愈輕者其身體意象愈正向;父母與同儕對其體型的評價愈負面者,身體意象愈負向者;父母與同儕對其健康飲食行為的忠告及支持程度愈高者,其身體意象愈正向。 三、研究結果顯示女生的整體飲食行為優於男生;自覺體型過重(含肥胖)者有較好的飲食行為;父母對體型評價愈正面、父母對健康飲食行為的忠告與支持程度愈高,其愈具有健康的飲食行為。 四、外表評價較高之研究對象有較佳的均衡飲食行為及較差的高熱量進食行為,愈重視外表者在均衡飲食行為及低熱量進食行為愈好,身體滿意度愈高,均衡飲食狀況愈好,整體身體意象愈正向者其在飲食狀況愈均衡,但有較高頻率的高熱量食物攝取行為。 五、均衡飲食行為主要的預測變項為「父母對健康飲食行為的忠告與支持」、「身體意象」、「同儕對健康飲食行為的忠告與支持」及「家庭社經地位」,其中家庭社經地位愈高、父母或同儕對健康飲食行為的忠告與支持程度愈高、身體意象愈正向,其均衡飲食行為愈佳。高熱量食物進食行為主要的預測變項為「性別」、「自覺體型」,即男生相對較偏好高熱量食物,「自覺體型」過重(含肥胖)者則較少進食高熱量食物。飲食控制行為主要的預測變項為「性別」、「家庭社經地位」及「父母對體型的評價」,其中為男生、父母對體型評價愈負面、家庭社經地位愈低,其飲食控制行為愈差。低熱量進食行為主要的預測變項為「性別」、「自覺體型」,即女生及自覺體型過重(含肥胖)者的低熱量進食行為較佳。 六、研究對象的個人背景變項及身體意象能有效預測飲食行為,並解釋其總變異量的18.0%,而「性別」、「自覺體型」、「家庭社經地位」、「父母對體型的評價」、「父母對健康飲食行為的忠告與支持」為主要預測變項,其中以女生、父母對其體型評價愈正面,且對其健康飲食行為支持程度愈高者、家庭社經地位愈高者、自覺體型過重(含肥胖)者,飲食行為愈好,主要預測變項中,以「性別」最具影響能力。
The study aimed to investigate the correlates of demography, body image, and eating behaviors among 5th to 6th Grade elementary school students. The study also aimed to predict the factors that affected eating behaviors of 5th to 6th Grade elementary school students. The study population consisted of aged 10-12 year olds who attended elementary schools at the Beitou district in Taipei City. The sample was generated using a stratified cluster random sampling method. Respondents were asked to complete a structure questionnaire. A total number of 464 valid questionnaires were collected. There were six main finds of the study. 1.The body shape of most respondents was “medium”, with the least being “small.” It was estimated that more than 30% of the respondents perceived themselves as being overweight and desired a thinner body shape. 2.The results indicated that girls were more dissatisfied with their body shape and cared more about their appearance. The lower the bodyweight the more positive the person’s self-perception of body image. The more negative the responses from parents and peers about body shape, the more negative the individual’s self-perception of their body image. Conversely, respondents who had a thinner body shape, more positive appreciation of respondents’ body shape were more likely to have a positive body image. Moreover, the support and advice from parents and peers about healthy eating behaviors was likely to improve body image. 3.The results indicated that girls had better eating behaviors than boys. Some factors improved eating behaviors such as self-perception of being overweight, more positive parents’ appreciation of respondents’ body shape, and greater support and advice from parents regarding healthy eating behaviors. 4.Respondents who had a better appreciation of their appearance had better eating behaviors. The more the respondents cared about their body shape, the better their eating behaviors and the more they ate low calorie foods. A positive body image improved eating habits but increased the frequency of high calorie food consumption. 5.The predictors of good eating behaviors were “the support and advice from parents”, “body image”, “the support and advice from peers”, “family social status”. The predictors of high calorie food consumption were “gender” and “self-perception of body shape”. Boys were more likely to eat high calorie food. Respondents who were perceived as overweight were less likely to consume high calorie food. The predictors of self control of eating behaviors were: “gender”, “family social status” and “the parent’s appreciation of respondents’ body weight”. Respondents who had poorer eating behaviors had parents with a more negative appreciation towards respondents’ body shape and came from a lower family social status. The predictors of low calorie food consumption were “gender” and “self-perception of body shape”. Girls and respondents who were perceived overweight were more likely to eat low calorie foods. 6.The result indicated that personal background and body image can predict eating behaviors which can explain 18% of the total variance. The main predictors were “gender”, “self-perception of body shape”, “family social status” and “the appreciation to respondents’ body weight from parents”. The following fields of people will have better eating behaviors: girls, people whose parents have a more positive appreciation of their body shape, people whose parents gave them more support and advice regarding health eating behaviors, people who came from a higher family social status and people who perceive themselves as overweight. Moreover, the main predict variable was gender.
Other Identifiers: GN0097053111
Appears in Collections:學位論文

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