Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://rportal.lib.ntnu.edu.tw:80/handle/20.500.12235/87365
Title: 具環境生態觀營義教育課程實施成效及影響教師課程實施之因素探討
An Exploration on the Effects of “Nutrition Education of Environmental Ecology Concept” and Its Elements Affecting Health Education Teachers’ Conducting
Authors: 劉貴雲
謝依芬
Keywords: 環境生態觀
營養教育
教學信念
影響教學因素
Environmental ecology concept
nutrition education
teaching beliefs
factors affecting teaching strategies
Issue Date: 2005
Abstract: 本研究主要目的在暸解實施「具環境生態觀的營養教育」課程對國中學生相關飲食的認知、態度、責任感,行為意圖和實際行為的影響;及暸解國中健康教育教師在實施「具環境生態觀的營養教育」時的教學信念,並進一步瞭解影響教師對教學信念詮釋與解釋的教學情境、相關的教學經驗及生命經驗,最後,分析歸納出影響教師實施教學可能的原因及所需求之相關配套措施。研究者以立意取樣台北市國中學生317位(教學組=179;未教學組=138)及國中教師28位為問卷調查研究對象,並從教師問卷中立意取樣2位教師進行深入訪談。經問卷調查及深入訪談歸納重要結果為: 1、教學組學生接受「具環境生態觀營養教育」課程後,對相關的認知程度、飲食行為的責任感及行為意圖方面有顯著的改善;而在飲食的態度及實際行為方面,無達到統計上的顯著差異。 2、教師的教學信念:(1)教學目標:a學習健康教育的知識,是形成健康行為的第一步;b厚植社會關懷與責任的態度;c破除人云亦云的迷思;d.開拓地球村、世界觀的眼界。(2)課程內容:a課程內容應與學生生活產生連結;b教師是課程內容的主導者。(3)教學策略:a同樣的教學策略不一定適合每個教師;b時間是影響教師教學策略選擇的重要因素;c不同的教學目標利用不同的教學策略;d適當的教學策略可以增進學生的學習效果;e以學生為教學策略的中心,隨時連結學生的生活經驗。(4)教學評量:a評量的時機無所不在;b根據教學單元的特性選擇不同的評量方式;c教學評量應該多樣化;d重視個別化的評量。(5)教師對學生的學習及需求:a學生健康問題越來越多元;b學習環境的大改變。 3、影響教師教學信念的教學情境包括:(1)學校硬體設備;(2)社區硬體設備;(3)教學進度;(4)與校內其他專業互動;(5)在學校兼任行政職務;(6)家長因素;(7)學校行政長官因素;(8)教師對課程的瞭解及認同程度。 4、影響教師教學信念的生命經驗包括:(1)強調背誦的國高中階段健康教育課;(2)營養教育與實務現場間存在落差的師資培育時期;(3)重新學習;(4)反思生活的點滴經驗;(5)參加相關活動。 5、影響教師教學信念的教學經驗包括:(1)單一版本,輕鬆教學;(2)教育改革衝撞舊教學;(3)新思維,新教學。 6、教師認知的實施教學困難面為:(1)學校電腦設備的限制;(2)社區硬體設備限制;(3)學生的飲食行為、態度難評量;(4)授課後學生產生無力感;(5)教師不熟悉課程。 7、教師自覺授課過程中所需要的配套措施為:(1)提供完整的教案及相關教學媒體;(2)提供家長的教材;(3)資訊的獲取與更新;(4)提供評量學生的工具。 本研究證實教師實施「具環境生態觀營養教育」課程的可行性及有效性,且對學生相關飲食的認知、態度、責任感,行為意圖和實際行為有正向的影響。並瞭解教師在課程中的教學信念及影響教學信念的教學情境、生命經驗與教學經驗為何,進一步瞭解教師知覺實施教學的困難面及需求。研究最後對教育面及未來研究方向提出建議。
The purpose of this paper is to understand the influences of Nutrition Education of Environmental Ecology Concept on the understanding, attitudes, sense of responsibility, conduct intentions and actual conducts of junior high school students as well as the teaching beliefs of health education teachers when conducting Nutrition Education of Environmental Ecology Concept while further understanding the teaching environment, relevant teaching experiences and life experiences of interpretations and explanation on teaching beliefs of teachers. At last, we analyze the possible reasons that affect the teaching beliefs of teachers and relevant measures required. With purposive sampling, 317 junior high school students in Taipei City were selected (teaching section n=179; non-teaching section n=138) and 28 teachers at junior high schools as our target. From the questionnaires to teachers, we selected 2 teachers with purposive sampling for thorough interviews. The major results after questionnaires and interviews are: 1. After taking “Nutrition Education of Environmental Ecology Concept,” students in teaching section show significant improvement in the degree of cognition, sense of responsibility of dining behaviors and conduct intentions; attitudes and actual conducts of dining do not reach the significant statistical differences. 2. Teaching beliefs of teachers: (1) teaching goal: a. learning the knowledge of health education is the first step of molding health behaviors, b. rooting the attitudes of social concern and responsibility, c. breaking myth of repeating what other people say, and d. broadening the vision of global village and world views. (2) Course contents: a. the contents should be connected to students’ life experiences, and b. teachers are the leaders of the course contents. (3) Teaching strategies: a. the same teaching strategy does not necessarily apply to each teacher, b. time is a key factor that affects the teaching strategies, c. different teaching strategies are used for different teaching goals, d. proper teaching strategies enhance the learning performances of students, and e. students are served as the center of teaching strategies, which connect to the life experience of students all the time. (4) Teaching assessment: a. the timing is everywhere, b. selecting different assessment measures in accordance with characteristics of teaching units, c. teaching assessment should be diverse, and d. emphasizing on individual assessment. (5). Teachers on students’ learning and requirements: a. the health issues of students are getting increasingly diverse, and b. significant changes of learning environment. 3. Teaching scenarios that affect teaching beliefs of teachers: (1) hardware of schools, (2) community hardware equipment, (3) teaching scheduled progress, (4) interaction with other professionals at schools, (5) concurring administrative posts at schools, (6) parents, (7) administrative officials at schools, and (8) teacher’s understanding and acceptance of the courses. 4. Life experiences affecting teaching beliefs of teachers: (1) health education at junior and senior schools emphasizing on memorization, (2) the training period for teachers where there are differences of nutrition education and practice sites, (3) re-learning, (4) introspection on life experiences, and (5) participation in relevant activities. 5. Teaching experiences that affect teaching beliefs of teachers: (1) single edition for easy teaching, (2) education reforms having impacts on old teaching methods, and (3) new waves and thoughts, new teaching strategies. 6. Difficulties of teaching recognized by teachers: (1) limits of computer equipment at schools, (2) limit of community hardware, (3) difficult to assess dining conducts and attitudes of students, (4) sense of frustration of students after having classes, and (5) teachers not familiar with courses. 7. The teachers’ most required measures: (1) providing comprehensive lesson plans and useful multi-media equipment, (2) materials for parents, (3) acquirement and update of information, and (4) providing tools to assess students. The study proves the feasibility and effectiveness of Nutrition Education of Environmental Ecology Concept conducted by teachers. The course has positive effects on the understanding, attitudes, sense of responsibility, conduct intentions and actual conducts of junior high school students. We also have an idea on what teaching beliefs of teachers in the courses and teaching environment, life experiences and teaching experiences that affect teaching beliefs and further find out the difficulties and needs of teachers in teaching. Suggestions are offered at last for education level and future researches.
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