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Since the greatly increase of the population of the elders recently, the importance of the elderly health is getting more evident. The elderly falls and the subsequent sequelae have been the main subject of the gerontics for years in the world. However, the intervention event has not been widely studied in Taiwan. The lack of the intervention for the elderly falls in Taiwan motivates us to propose this study. The intervention has been applied to a sample of 41 elders in Taipei county, 25 urban elders and 16 rural elders, with 1 week class study and 5 weeks exercise in order to quantitatively study the effects of one independent variable (social demographic factors), five mediator variables (social support system of the exercise behavior, knowledge of the fall prevention, health belief of the fall prevention, self-efficacy of the fall prevention, and exercise of the fall prevention), and two dependent variables (behavior of the fall prevention and physical function) . This intervention is a precursor of the fall prevention for elders and coordinates the future study on this field. The questionnaire measurements are performed before and after the intervention. The mains results are summarized as follows. 1. According to the differences of the habitation, education level, experience of the falls in the past one year, and possibility of the injury due to falls, the influence of the knowledge of the fall prevention turns out to be significant. The eye-sight of the subjects strongly influences the exercise of the fall prevention. 2. The usage of the walking assistant strongly influences the behavior of the fall prevention. The age and the usage of the walking assistant are important factors for the physical function; the effect is significant. 3. The effect of the intervention to the knowledge of the fall prevention is significant to the urban and rural subjects. The health belief of the fall prevention is greatly improved only in the urban subjects. 4. The intervention of the physical function has been significantly improved in the rural subjects; no trend has been found in urban subjects. 5. The effect of the intervention to the outcome measures (two dependent variables) is quantified according to the mediator variables. This study infers that (a) the self-efficacy of the fall prevention strongly influences the behavior of the fall prevention and (b) five mediator variables are not important factors to affect the physical function. Though the intervention to the knowledge of the fall prevention has been disturbed by the difference of the education level between urban and rural elders, the improvement of the fall prevention for urban and rural elders has been significant. An important result of our research on the intervention to the fall prevention is that the fall prevention is influenced only by the health belief. In short, independent variables other than the health belief have similar intervention effects between the urban and rural elders in Taiwan.
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