Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://rportal.lib.ntnu.edu.tw:80/handle/20.500.12235/87222
Title: 幼兒與安養機構老人代間關係發展歷程之研究
Authors: 林歐貴英
涂嘉新
Keywords: 代間方案
合作行為
態度
溝通
幼兒
老人
intergenerational program
cooperated behavior
attitude
communication
young children
the eld
Issue Date: 2005
Abstract: 中文摘要 本研究主要以招募12名幼稚園大班幼兒(男生4名,女生8名)與12名安養機構阿嬤共同合作進行為數12次,長達一個半月的代間活動,並採取質性研究的角度出發,和參與觀察的方法,聚焦於十二組老少配中的其中5組,瞭解他們在代間方案的活動歷程中,幼兒對老人的看法與態度、幼兒與老人雙方代間關係的發展情形以及代間的互動方式。此外,輔以訪談相關人員(如:幼稚園教師、焦點幼兒之家長、協同研究者等)、研究者札記和畫人測驗(Human Figure Drawings)等,作為資料蒐集的來源。在研究的理論基礎方面,主要包含一些人際關係的相關理論,例如:人際需求論、社會交換論、符號互動論等。還有,兒童發展的觀點與老人學相關的理論,如:角色理論與活動理論等。 本研究分析後發現:1.在幼兒對老人的看法與態度方面─(1)不同幼兒對不同老人的接受度(或態度)因老人對象的不同而有差異。(2)囿於幼兒的口語表達能力與態度看法較偏屬於內在知覺與感受,故較不易全盤掌握、得知。(3)代間接觸互動的品質較直接影響幼兒對老人的態度看法與代間關係。(4)幼兒對熟悉的老人,使用的形容詞彙與描述的內容細節較多而詳細。2.在幼兒與老人雙方代間關係的發展層面─(1)參與本研究之幼兒多數過去曾有與老人互動之經驗且互動品質不錯,故代間活動無法明顯造成代間關係改變。(2)代間經驗互動之好壞,可能形塑整體上幼兒對老人的印象看法。(3)代間關係好壞很難有一個公正客觀之標準。3.在幼兒與老人雙方代間互動方式方面─(1)在活動中,口語上阿嬤們出現較多的「合作式交談」、「表達式交談」與「工具式交談」,而幼兒部分則屬「工具性的交談」為數最多,但這是受活動內容性質影響。(2)阿嬤們較常以身體動作、表情、聲音語調表達她們的情感與感覺,而幼兒主要多以臉部表情、眼神回應阿嬤。(3)代間合作受活動類型影響,亦受到活動參與者之人格特質、個性與做事方式有關。 研究者希冀透過本研究之代間方案中,所看到的代間關係發展及互動、合作情況的展現,能夠引發大家思考代間方案與代間互動及代間關係發展之間的關係為何。
ABSTRACT The subject of this research was four kindergarten girls, eight kindergarten boys, and twelve female senior adults living in senior homes. The purpose of this research is to examine the interactions between the children and senior adults during a one and half months period. A total of twelve experimental groups were formed. Each group was composed of one senior adult and one child. Only five out of the twelve groups observed were chosen for further documentation. This research focused on the areas as follows to examine the interactions between two generations. l Discovering children’s attitude and conception toward the seniors adults. l Interviewing the participants, such as, the teachers in the kindergarten, the children’s parents, and research assistants, etc. l Documenting the results of the research. l Administering a Human Figure Drawing test on the children. This research was based on the following theories of relationships: interpersonal needs theory, the theory of social exchange, symbolic interactionism. Other related theories regarding child development and geriatrics were also reviewed for the theoretical foundation for this research, for example, role-play theory, and activity theory. 1. Children’s attitudes and opinions toward senior adults. (1) Children’s attitudes and acceptance of the senior adults were varied from different senior people. (2) Understanding the oral expressions and attitudes of children were difficult because their actions were based on inward perceptions and emotions. (3) Children were directly affected by the quality of interaction found in intergenerational contact. (4) Children were more comfortable and expressive when interacting with their partnering senior adults. 2. The interaction between children and senior adults. (1) The children who participated in this research had had previous interaction with senior adults and had good experiences with them. Consequently, this might have affected the results of the research in unknown ways. However, they did not have negative effect to intergenerational relationship, maintaining a stable condition. (2) An intergenerational relationship, whether positive or negative, would directly affect the opinions of children regarding senior adults. (3) There was no true and objective standard for judging intergenerational relationships. 3. The oral interactions between children and senior adults.   (1) In this activity, senior adults prefer to use “cooperative talk”, “expressional talk ” and “ instrumental talk”; for children ,they rather used functional talk, but that would be affect by the properties of activities. (2) Senior adults often used body movements, expressions and vocal tones to demonstrate their emotions and feelings. Children responded with facial expression and expression in their eyes to senior adults. (3) The interaction between the two generations were not only determined by the type of the activities, but also determined by the personal style and unique characteristics of the participants. Through the intergeneration activities, this research had revealed the development, interactions, and cooperation between two generations. The researcher anticipates that the results can be a foundation for the further research. More effective activities can, therefore, be generated to enhance more positive interactions and the harmonious relationship between two generations.
URI: http://etds.lib.ntnu.edu.tw/cgi-bin/gs32/gsweb.cgi?o=dstdcdr&s=%22http://etds.lib.ntnu.edu.tw/cgi-bin/gs32/gsweb.cgi?o=dstdcdr&s=id=%22N2005000132%22.&%22.id.&
http://rportal.lib.ntnu.edu.tw:80/handle/20.500.12235/87222
Other Identifiers: N2005000132
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