Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://rportal.lib.ntnu.edu.tw:80/handle/20.500.12235/87219
Title: 雙薪家庭幼兒父母親的婚姻滿意、親職壓力與共親職之相關研究
Marital Satisfaction, Parenting Stress, and Coparenting for Parents of Dual-Earner Families
Authors: 林如萍 博士
吳明
Keywords: 雙薪家庭
親職壓力
婚姻滿意
共親職
dual-earner families
parenting stress
marital satisfaction
coparenting
Issue Date: 2005
Abstract: 中文摘要 本研究旨在探討雙薪家庭幼兒父母親的婚姻滿意、親職壓力與共親職三者間之關係。採問卷調查法蒐集資料,以育有3至6歲幼兒的雙薪父母親為對象,依臺北市12個行政區人口比例分層抽取14所公、私立幼稚園學童父母親填答問卷,共取得579份有效樣本。研究工具為「為人父母感受與婚姻關係問卷」,內容包括自編的「親職壓力量表」、「親職聯盟量表」及「堪薩斯婚姻滿意量表」。問卷調查所得的資料分別以t考驗、單因子變異數分析、皮爾遜積差相關等統計方法進行處理。主要的研究發現如下: 一、雙薪家庭幼兒父母親之婚姻滿意、親職壓力與共親職 有七成五以上的父母親對自己的婚姻給予正面的評估,僅有6.6%的父母親對婚姻感到較不滿意。有近五成的父母親感受較大的親職壓力,其中有5.8%的父母親認為親職壓力非常大。以親職壓力的程度大小而言,依序為「外在環境」、「財務成本」、「角色衝突」、「親密關係不滿足」及「家人互動關係」壓力最小。就父母親的共親職而言,高達九成的父母親對自己的共親職程度給予高度的評估,僅有6.4%的父母親認為共親職合作情形不佳。 二、不同背景變項之雙薪家庭幼兒父母親,在婚姻滿意、親職壓力與共親職之差異 性別、社經地位對父母親的婚姻滿意、親職壓力與共親職三變項均有顯著影響。而且是父親的婚姻滿意高於母親,母親的親職壓力大於父親,父親從配偶獲得的共親職程度高於母親。高社經地位及中社經地位父母親的「整體婚姻」滿意均高於低社經地位者;中社經地位父母親的「配偶表現」及「配偶關係」滿意均高於低社經地位者。中社經地位父母親的整體親職壓力比高社經地位父母親來得大;低社經地位與中社經地位父母親的「財務成本」及「家人互動關係」壓力比高社經地位父母親大。 年齡、教育程度對父母親的親職壓力均有顯著影響。30歲以下及31至35歲父母親的「家人互動關係」壓力比36至40歲的父母親大。高中(職)程度父母親的「財務成本」壓力大於大學及碩士以上程度的父母親。高中(職)程度父母親的「家人互動關係」壓力大於碩士以上程度的父母親。 家庭結構對父母親的婚姻滿意與親職壓力二變項有顯著影響。與上一代父母同住的夫妻,其婚姻滿意高於未與上一代父母同住的夫妻。與上一代父母同住的夫妻,其親職壓力高於未與上一代父母同住者。 三、雙薪家庭幼兒父母親的親職壓力、共親職與婚姻滿意之關係 父母親的親職壓力、共親職與婚姻滿意之間都達到顯著相關,而且親職壓力與婚姻滿意呈顯著負相關,共親職與婚姻滿意呈顯著正相關,親職壓力與共親職呈顯著負相關。 基於以上研究發現,雙薪家庭幼兒父母親的親職壓力愈高,其婚姻滿意愈低,共親職亦愈低;因此,為幫助雙薪家庭幼兒父母親提升其婚姻滿意及共親職合作程度,以降低親職壓力,本研究提出教育應用與未來研究之建議如下: 一、教育應用方面: 對父母親之建議:透過夫妻溝通,找出在多重角色之間的微妙平衡點;教養子女的秘訣在於學習以孩子的眼光看待他們的世界;善用資源管理與財務規劃,幫助家庭達成不同的生活目標;不要忽略了性和親密感;與上一代父母開誠布公地溝通;鼓勵父親共同參與教養子女的工作;善用其他人士的支持,有助於減低父母親的壓力。 家庭教育課程內涵之建議:需兼顧親職壓力調適、父母共同參與親職及婚姻教育等議題;針對不同背景之需求,開設適性的家庭教育課程,例如:男女有別,年輕的初為人父母者為學習需求最高的關鍵期,針對高中﹙職﹚教育程度者設計難易適中的課程與教材,提供弱勢家庭適當的社會福利資源與資訊,擴展代間關係之主題。 二、未來研究方面: 研究主題:進一步探討因子女出生後所產生之各種親職壓力內涵及主題,以擴增對婚姻滿意影響因素之了解;研究對象:擴大樣本數與取樣範圍,豐富相關的研究結果;研究方法:廣採質性深入訪談法、家庭關係三人互動觀察法及縱貫性研究等方法,以深入探討親職壓力、共親職與婚姻滿意之關係;研究工具:採用多面向婚姻滿意量表及共親職量表,以了解親職壓力、共親職與婚姻滿意不同構面的相互關係與影響。
ABSTRACT The purpose of this research is to explore the relations between and among martial satisfaction, parenting stress and coparenting and parents of dual-earner families (DEF) with different demographic characteristics. In this study, quantitative data was collected from a proportionate stratified sample of 579 parents living in Taipei City. The participants are dual-earner parents who have children aged 3 to 6 in the 14 public and private pre-schools of the 12 administration areas of Taipei City. The number of samples taken from each pre-school is proportional to the population of the corresponding administration area. The research instrument used is “Questionnaire of parents’ feeling and marital relations”, including 3 sub-scales: the Parenting Stress Inventory developed by the author, the Parenting Alliance Inventory (PAI), and the Kansas Marital Satisfaction Scale (KMS). Data from the questionnaires are analyzed by independent-samples T test, one-way analysis of variance”, and Pearson product-moment correlation. The major findings of this research are as follows: A. Overall statistical results of the relations between marital satisfaction, parenting stress, and coparenting and parents of DEF In general, the majority (75%) of the Taiwanese parents expressed satisfaction with their marriage; but 6.6% of the parents were unsatisfied. More than 50% of parents reported higher parenting stress; among them, 5.8% of the parents feel very heavy stress. Elements of parenting stress from highest to lowest are: external environment, financial cost, role conflict, intimate relation dissatisfaction, and family relations. For coparenting evaluation, more than 90% of the parents give themselves higher-degree coparenting; but 6.4% of the response is low. B. Differences in marital satisfaction, parenting stress and coparenting in relation to different demographic characteristics of DEF parents I. In terms of gender and socio-economic status differences, both have significant influence on marital satisfaction, parenting stress and coparenting. Men reported higher marital satisfaction levels than women. Women recorded heavier parenting stress than men. Men feel they demonstrate a higher-degree of coparenting than women. II. The correlation between parents of different socio-economic status and how they view their relationship in various aspects of their marriage was significant: members of the high and middle socio-economic status enjoy higher levels of marital satisfaction than parents with low socio-economic status. For “spouse performance” and “spouse relations”, parents of middle socio-economic status indicate higher satisfaction than parents of low socio-economic status. For parenting stress, parents of middle socio-economic status feel heavier stress than parents of high socio-economic status. In the areas of financial cost and family relations, parents of middle and low socio-economic status report heavier stress than parents of high socio-economic status. III. In terms of differences in age and education, both have significant impact on coparenting for parents. For family relations, parents below 35 suffer heavier stress than those aged 36 to 40. For financial cost, parents with only a high school diploma face heavier stress than those with a bachelor’s or master’s degree. For family relations, parents with a high school diploma have heavier stress than those with a master’s degree. IV. Family construction differences lead to significant impacts on two variables: marital satisfaction and parenting stress. For marital satisfaction, couples living with parents record higher satisfaction than couples not living with parents. For parenting stress, couples living with parents are subject to heavier stress than those not living with parents. C. Relations among parenting stress, coparenting and marital satisfaction of DEF parents There are significant correlations among parenting stress, coparenting and marital satisfaction: parenting stress and marital satisfaction have a negative correlation; coparenting and marital satisfaction are positively correlated; and parenting stress and coparenting show negative correlation. Based upon the above results, it is found that for DEF parents: the higher parenting stress, the lower satisfaction and lower coparenting. Therefore, to help DEF parents to upgrade their marital satisfaction and coparenting while lowering parenting stress, some areas of education application and future research direction are proposed: A. Education application To parents: through communication, couples needs to find the subtle balance point among their multiple roles; parents should remember that the key point of teaching children is to learn children’s viewpoints to deal with their world; make fully use of resource management and financial planning to help the family achieve different goals in life; do not ignore sex and intimate feelings; communicate with parents frankly and honestly; encourage fathers to become involved in teaching and raising children; skillfully make use of other people’s support to effectively reduce parents’ stress. Suggestions for the contents of a family education program: find topics for combining parenting stress adjustment and encourage parents’ involvement in parenting and marriage education. For parents with different backgrounds, different courses need to be provided: for men and for women separately, for young parents who have the most intensive need for learning, for parents with only a high school education to understand how to become upwardly mobile, for low-income families needing information about social welfare/support, and provide the topics to facilitate communication between different generations. B. Future research direction There are four suggestions for future research. First, future studies would explore the content of parenting stress after children are born to further understand the impact on marital satisfaction. Second, future research might well enlarge the scope of this study sample. Third, future research should be undertaken using different research methods, such as qualitative interview methods, observational measures of coparenting and whole family interaction, and longitudinal research in order to provide different angles on some issues. Lastly, future research might use the multi-dimensional marital satisfaction inventory and coparenting inventory to understand the correlation and influence among parenting stress, coparenting and marital satisfaction from different dimensions.
URI: http://etds.lib.ntnu.edu.tw/cgi-bin/gs32/gsweb.cgi?o=dstdcdr&s=%22http://etds.lib.ntnu.edu.tw/cgi-bin/gs32/gsweb.cgi?o=dstdcdr&s=id=%22N2005000041%22.&%22.id.&
http://rportal.lib.ntnu.edu.tw:80/handle/20.500.12235/87219
Other Identifiers: N2005000041
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