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Professional Competencies Required for Small and Medium Size Restaurant Entrepreneur
研究的方法主要以Occupational Competency Analysis Profiles(OCAPs)法為主，包括資料蒐集、評估、訪談、Developing a Curriculum(DACUM)會議發展能力目錄草案、從業者問卷確認、專家檢核等過程。此外，為提高專家取向的廣度，研究方法並輔以「餐廳現場觀察」與「餐廳創業者訪談」，以使研究資料得以相互印證而更臻完整。
This research focuses on issues regarding entrepreneurship in the food and beverage industry, and in particular, explores the professional competencies required by the operator of a small and medium entrepreneur (SME) restaurant in order to cope with the needs of the industry environment. The six main purposes of the research are: (1) to verify the occupational competencies required by the entrepreneurs of SME restaurants. (2) to review the degree of importance, the frequency of use, and the future needs with respect to an entrepreneur acquiring professional competencies. (3) to verify the acknowledgement, skill, and attitude an entrepreneur should have. (4) to establish a benchmark of occupational competencies for entrepreneurs of SME restaurants. (5) to review the degree of importance and the level of competency that an entrepreneur of an SME restaurant should acquire. (6) to analyze the required qualifications for the entrepreneurs of SME restaurants. The Occupational Competency Analysis Profiles (OCAPs) method is mainly utilized, which includes procedures for data collection and evaluation, interviews, a draft index for development capability for Developing a Curriculum (DACUM) profession conference, verification by survey of business operators and experts' examination. In addition, in order to increase the diversity of the expert selection, the research also applies job-site observation and interviews with the restaurant entrepreneurs to ensure that the research materials will be consistent and more comprehensive. Based on job-site observation, that entrepreneurs are faced with different tasks in different stages. The first stage is the planning period, the second stage is the contracting period, the third stage is the inspection period, the fourth stage is the acceptance period, and the fifth stage is the opening period. In addition, 8 major duties and 82 job tasks were developed by the DACUM profession conference. The 8 duties are: entrepreneurship plan, restaurant interior design plan, on-site operation and management, financial management, operations plan, marketing plan, personnel management, and crisis management. It turned out that a restaurant entrepreneur requires 94 competencies, including 23 items in the area of knowledge, 34 skill items, and 27 attitude items. In the end the questionnaires are used to survey 292 SME restaurant entrepreneurs. It appears that all the job items and occupational competencies were listed as required items. In addition, in the comparison among and analysis of different entrepreneurs' characteristics, regarding the degree of importance, different genders are significantly different in the personnel management items; in addition, the management styles of entrepreneurs of different business types are also significantly different. As for the frequency of use, entrepreneurs of different service types are significantly different in their entrepreneurship plan, marketing plan, and personnel management. Based on the research findings, the suggestions for SME restaurant entrepreneurs, the food and beverage industry, and school and vocational training institutes, as well as for future studies are proposed .
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