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Consumption frequency of stinky tofu and urine isoflavone kinetic analysis after a single ingestion of stinky tofu
由122 家臭豆腐店面及攤販，收集143 種臭豆腐樣品，以HPLC分析異黃酮的含量，結果發現每100 g臭豆腐平均含 daidzein 9.32 mg (glycosides 3.81 mg& aglycon 5.51 mg)、genistein 12.81 mg (glycosides 6.31 mg & aglycon 6.50 mg)、glycitein 1.27 mg (glycosides 0.39 mg, aglycon 0.88 mg)，及daidzein之代謝物dihydrodaidzein 0.36 mg、equol 1.16 mg、desmethylangolesin 0.01 mg、dihydrogenistein 0.55 mg。去醣基之異黃酮約佔總異黃酮量 49.7±27.2 %。
對 274位有攝取臭豆腐習慣者進行臭豆腐攝取頻率調查，發現18.3%的受訪者每週攝取1-2次以上，46.4 %每月攝取1-3次，24.8 %每3個月攝取1-2次，每人每次攝食量平均為195.0 ± 79.6 g。
另於校園招募74 位20-30 歲臭豆腐嗜好者，服用異黃酮三天後，分析尿液equol，分辨出52人 (70.3 %) 為equol producer，22人 ( 29.7 %) 為 equol non-producer，由其中挑選20位equolproducer，18位 equol non-producer，給予一份臭豆腐後，收集48小時尿液 (4 個1小時尿液，4 個2小時尿液與 3 個 12 小時尿液) 分析異黃酮排出量。結果發現 0-1 小時即有 daidzein、equol、genistein、glycitein 排出，並於 3-4 小時內達最大排出速率，36-48 小時內排出趨近為 0。dihydrodaidzein、desmethylangolesin，則於吃後 1-4 小時出現，10-12 小時內達最大排出速率。equol producer 和 non-producer兩組的daidzein、equol、genistein 排出量與速率在 10-12 小時內，開始出現差異；兩組的dihydrodaidzein、desmethylangolesin 排出量與速率在12-24 內開始出現差異，表示臭豆腐中 daidzein 和 genistein 代謝產物於攝取後 10 小時出現，兩組glycitein 0-48 小時內排出量與速率皆無差異。總 daidzein 類攝取在尿液回收 75.9 %、equol 回收 67.4 %、總 genistein 類回收 41.8 %、總 glycitein 類回收 65.3 %。另比較 equol producer 和 equol non-producer 黃豆製品攝取量、臭豆腐攝取量、排便頻率皆無顯著差異。
結論，臭豆腐中去醣基異黃酮含量高，並富含 equol，可為提供 equol 來源食物。無論 equol producer 或 equol non-producer 攝取臭豆腐後皆對其異黃酮吸收快、吸收率高。另外發現嗜好臭豆腐之台灣年輕人具良好 equol 產生能力，有待進一步研究確認原因。|
This research analyzed isoflavones content in stinky tofu from night markets in Taipei and Taichung, consumption frequency of stinky tofu by hobbyists, and urinary pharmacokinetics of isoflavones following a single ingestion of stinky tofu by equol producers and non-producers. We collected 143 stinky tofu samples from 122 vendors and analyzed the isoflavones content by HPLC (high-performance liquid chromatography). The results showed that the average contents in every 100 g of stinky tofu were 9.32 mg of daidzein (including glycosides 3.81 mg and aglycon 5.51 mg), 12.81 mg of genistein (including glycosides 6.31 mg and aglycon 6.50 mg), 1.27 mg of glycitein (including glycosides 0.39 mg and aglycon 0.88 mg), 0.36 mg of dihydrodaidzein, 1.16 mg of equol, 0.01 mg of desmethylangolesin, and 0.55 mg of dihydrogenistein. The percentage of aglycone isoflavone is 49.7±27.2. We also surveyed 274 respondents with habit of eating stinky tofu for their stinky tofu intake frequency. We found that 18.3% of the respondents take more than 1–2 times per week, 46.4% of them take 1–3 times per month, and 24.8% of them take 1–2 times per quarter. The average amount of each intake is 195.0± 79.6 g. We recruited 74 stinky tofu hobbyists within 20–30 years old and analyzed their equol content in urine after challenging soy isoflavone for 3 days, that were identified 52 of them (70.3%) are equol producers and 22 of them (29.7%) are equol non-producers. We selected 20 equol producers and 18 equol non-producers, collect their urine in the 48 hours after one serving of stinky tofu (four 1-hour urine samples, four 2-hour urine samples and three 12-hour urine samples), and analyzed urinary isoflavone content. We found that daidzein, equol, genistein and glycitein were excreted within 0–1 hour, and it reached peak excretion rate after 3–4 hours. The excretion amount approached 0 after 36–48 hours. Dihydrodaidzein and desmethylangolesin started to be excreted 1–4 after serving stinky tofu, and it reached peak excresion rate in 10–12 hours. The difference of daidzein, equol and genistein excretion amount and rate between equol producers and non-producers appeared to be significant in 10–12 hours; the difference of dihydrodaidzein and desmethylangolesin appeared to be significant in 12–24 hours. That means, the metabolites of daidzein and genistein in stinky tofu appeared 10 hours after intaking. The excretion amount and rate difference of glycitein between equol producers and non-producers was insignificant within 0–48 hours. Recovery of urine isoflavones is 75.9 % of total daidzein, 67.4 % of equol, 41.8 % of total genistein and 65.3 % of total glycitein. The equol producers had similar amount of soy food intake, stinky tofu intake and defecation frequency as compared with the equol non-producers. Our results show that the aglycone isoflavones content in stinky tofu are rich, especially containing equol. And the absorption rates are high for both equol producers and non-producers. Stinky tofu could serve as an equol source. It requires further research to justify if the proportion of equol producers is higher among young stinky tofu hobbyists.
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