Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://rportal.lib.ntnu.edu.tw:80/handle/20.500.12235/86948
Title: 青少年祖孫關係類型及其影響因素-以台北縣市國中生為對象分析
Authors: 林如萍
黃瑞真
Keywords: 祖孫互動
祖孫關係
祖孫關係類型
青少年
grandparent-grandchild interaction
grandparent-grandchild relationship
styles of grandparent-grandchild relationship
adolescents
Issue Date: 2006
Abstract: 摘要 本研究旨在透過青少年觀點,由親密支援、接觸頻率、共同活動、教養權威及工具協助等五個互動面向,分別分析青少年與四位祖父母的互動現況、關係類型及影響祖孫關係類型的因素。本研究針對台北縣、市國中學生以問卷調查法進行資料搜集,有效樣本共計520份。主要研究發現如下: (一)青少年與祖父母的整體概況:九成青少年擁有至少一位祖父母,而擁有祖父母的青少年,約六成於學齡前曾被任一位目前健在的祖父母照顧,其中又以曾受祖母照顧的比例最高,就居住狀況來看,近三成的青少年與祖父、祖母同住。 (二)青少年與祖父母的互動: 1.青少年與祖父:以天天見面所佔比例最高,未同住者多於一週內通電話或寫信聯絡幾次。親密支援行為以孫子女經常提供祖父母意見為多,共同活動以家族聚會最多,工具協助行為則以祖父母給零用錢或紅包最多,僅三成的祖父會糾正、教訓孫子女。 2.青少年與祖母:以天天見面所佔比例最高,未同住者多於一週內電話、寫信聯絡幾次。親密支援行為中以孫子女提供祖父母意見或資訊最高,共同活動以家族聚會最多。工具協助行為以祖母餽贈零用錢或紅包為多,僅有三成的祖母會糾正、教訓孫子女。 3.青少年與外祖父:多數於一年內見面幾次,未同住者常於一個月內通電話或寫信聯絡數次,親密支援行為以青少年提供外祖父意見及資訊最多,共同活動以家族聚會最多、工具協助以外祖父給孫子女零用錢或紅包最多,僅二成的外祖父會糾正、教訓孫子女。 4.青少年與外祖母:彼此多為一年見面幾次,未同住者多數一週內打電話或寫信聯絡幾次。親密支援行為以青少年提供外祖母意見或資訊為多,共同活動以家族聚會最多。工具協助則以外祖母會給青少年零用錢或紅包最多,僅二成五的外祖母會糾正、教訓孫子女。 (三)青少年與祖父母的關係類型:依據祖孫在親密支援、接觸頻率、共同活動、教養權威及工具協助等五面向的行為頻率,分別將青少年與祖父、祖母、外祖父、外祖母的關係區分為三種祖孫關係類型如下: 1.青少年與祖父:疏離型的祖孫各面向上皆少有互動,冷漠型雖然接觸頻率高於疏離型,但在其他面向上的互動少且以共同活動為多,影響型則於各面向的互動頻繁且高於其他兩類型。三類型中以冷漠型所佔比例最高。 2.青少年與祖母:疏離型的祖孫各面向上均少有互動,冷漠型雖較常接觸,但其他面向互動少且以工具協助行為較多。影響型則各面向的互動頻繁,且彼此提供高度的親密支援。三類型中以冷漠型所佔比例最高。 3.青少年與外祖父:疏離型的祖孫各面向均少有互動,冷漠型雖然祖孫常有接觸,但其他面向之互動較少而以工具協助行為較多,影響型不僅接觸頻率最高,且在各面向上均有頻繁的互動。三類型中以冷漠型所佔比例最高。 4.青少年與外祖母:疏離型的祖孫不僅接觸頻率低,且甚少其他的互動行為。冷漠型雖然接觸頻率較高且與影響型差不多,但其他面向互動均少於影響型,影響型則相較於冷漠型有更多的支援、協助、活動、教養權威行為。其中以影響型所佔比例最高。 (四)青少年祖孫關係類型之影響因素:分別於青少年與祖父、祖母、外祖父、外祖母的關係類型中,以該關係中的疏離型為比較對象,發現孫子女性別、祖父母婚姻狀況、父母婚姻狀況、家庭社經地位等變項均未具有顯著影響力,而具有顯著影響力之因素分述如下: 1.青少年與祖父:青少年年齡愈小、父母促進祖孫互動、青少年家庭居住於非都市地區者,愈可能成為冷漠型。父母促進祖孫互動、祖父健康狀況愈佳、與祖父交談愈流利、祖孫居住距離為同鄉鎮村裡以內者,愈可能成為影響型。 2.青少年與祖母:祖母健康狀況愈佳、父母促進祖孫互動、祖孫居住距離為同鄉鎮村裡以內者愈可能成為冷漠型。與祖母交談愈流利、父母促進祖孫互動、居住距離於同鄉鎮村裡以內者,愈可能成為影響型。 3.青少年與外祖父:青少年年齡愈小、父母促進祖孫互動、祖孫居住距離於同鄉鎮村裡以內者,愈可能成為冷漠型。祖孫交談愈流利、父母促進祖孫互動、居住距離為同鄉鎮村裡以內者,愈可能成為影響型。 4.青少年與外祖母:父母促進祖孫互動、祖孫居住距離在同鄉鎮村裡內者愈可能成為冷漠型。祖孫交談愈流利、外祖母健康狀況愈佳、父母促進祖孫互動、青少年家庭居住於都市、祖孫居住距離為同鄉鎮村裡者,愈可能成為影響型。
This research is to study adolescents』 interaction with their four grandparents、the types of their grandparent-grandchild relationship、and the factors affecting the relationship from an adolescents』 point of view in five different but interacted aspects: Intimacy& Support、Contact、Activities、Authority、and Instrumental Assistance. This research was conducted by a questionnaire survey、and a total of 520 junior high school students in Taipei County and Taipei City were interviewed. The main discoveries of the research are as follows: (1)Overall relationship between the adolescents and their grandparents: 90% of the adolescents have at least one grandparent. Among those who have grandparent(s) 60% were cared for by one of their currently alive grandparents before they began school、with most of them cared for by their grandmothers. Some 30% of the adolescents are living with their grandfathers and grandmothers. (2)Interaction between the adolescents and their grandparents: 1.Adolescents and their paternal grandfathers: The largest percentage of the students were those who could see their grandparent everyday. For those who are not living together、most of them phone or write to each other several times a week. The major Intimacy& Supportbehavior is for the grandchildren to provide opinions to their grandfathers. The major Activity is family get-togethers. The major Instrumental Assistance is for the grandfathers to give spending or gift money to their grandchildren. Only 30% of the grandfathers would correct or lecture their grandchildren. 2.Adolescents and their paternal grandmothers: The largest percentage of the students were those who could see their grandparent everyday. For those who are not living together、most of them would phone or write to each other several times a week. The major Intimacy& Support behavior is for the grandchildren to provide opinions and information to their grandmothers. The major Activity is family get-togethers. The major Instrumental Assistance is for the grandmothers to give spending or gift money to their grandchildren. Only 30% of the grandmothers would correct or lecture their grandchildren. 3.Adolescents and their maternal grandfathers: Most of them only visit each other several times a year. For those who are not living together、most of them wouldphone or write to each other several times a month. The major Intimacy& Support behavior is for the grandchildren to provide opinions and information to their maternal grandfathers. The major Activity is family get-togethers. The major Instrumental Assistance is for the maternal grandfathers to give spending or gift money to their grandchildren. Only 20% of the maternal grandfathers would correct or lecture their grandchildren. 4.Adolescents and their maternal grandmothers: Most of them only visit each other several times a year. For those who are not living together、most of them would phone or write to each other several times a week. The major Intimacy& Support behavior is for the grandchildren to provide opinions and information to their maternal grandmothers. The major Activity is family get-togethers. The major Instrumental Assistance is for the maternal grandmothers to give spending or gift money to their grandchildren. Only 25% of the maternal grandmothers would correct or lecture their grandchildren. (3)Styles of grandparent-grandchild relationship: According to the behavioral frequency in the following five aspects: Intimacy & Support、Contact、Activities、Authority、and Instrumental Assistance、there are three different styles of grandparent-grandchild relationships displayed between the adolescents and their grandparents: 1.Adolescents and their grandfathers: Grandfathers and grandchildren of the Detached style have little interaction in any aspects. Grandfathers and grandchildren of the Passive style have more Contact with each other but less interaction in the other aspects、among which Activities happened more often. Grandfathers and grandchildren of the Influential style interact more frequently in all aspects than the other two styles. The percentage of the Passive style is the highest. 2.Adolescents and their grandmothers: Grandmothers and grandchildren of the Detached style have little interaction in any aspects. Grandmothers and grandchildren of the Passive style have more Contact with each other but less interaction in the other aspects、among which the Activities happen more often. Grandmothers and grandchildren of the Influential style interact more frequently in all aspects、and provide each other intensive Intimacy& Support. The percentage of the Passive style is the highest. 3.Adolescents and their maternal grandfathers: Maternal grandfathers and grandchildren of the Detached style have little interaction in any aspects. Maternal grandfathers and grandchildren of the Passive style have more Contact with each other but less interaction in the other aspects、among which the Activities happen more often. Maternal grandfathers and grandchildren of the Influential style not only have high frequency in Contact but also interact more often in all aspects. The percentage of the Passive style is the highest. 4.Adolescents and their maternal grandmothers: Maternal grandmothers and grandchildren of the Detached style not only have low frequency in Contact but also have little interaction in the other aspects. Maternal grandmothers and grandchildren of the Passive style have more Contact、of which the frequency is as high as that of the Influential style、but they have lesser interaction in the other aspects than the Influential style. Compare to those of the Passive style、maternal grandmothers and grandchildren of the Influential style have more Supporting、Assistance、Activities、and Authority. The percentage of the Influential style is the highest. (4)Factors affecting grandparent-grandchild relationship between adolescents and their grandparents: After comparing the Detached style in adolescents』 relationship with their grandfathers、grandmothers、maternal grandfathers、and maternal grandmothers、we found that the gender of the grandchildren、the marital status of the grandparents、the marital status of the parents、and the socio-economic status of the family have less impact on the grandparent-grandchild relationship. Those factors that have significant impact on the grandparent-grandchild relationship are: 1.Adolescents and their grandfathers: When the adolescents are younger、the parents encourage grandparent-grandchild interactions、and the adolescents』 families resided in rural areas、so it is more possible for the relationship to become Passive. When the parents encourage grandparent-grandchild interactions、the grandfathers are healthier、the communications with the grandfathers are better、and the grandfathers and grandchildren are living in the same areas、it is more possible for the relationship to become Influential. 2.Adolescents and their grandmothers: When the grandmothers are healthier、the parents encourage grandparent-grandchild interactions、and the grandmothers and grandchildren are living in the same areas、it is more possible for the relationship to become Passive. When the communications with the grandmothers are better、the parents encourage grandparent-grandchild interactions、and the grandmothers and grandchildren are living in the same areas、it is more possible for the relationship to become Influential. 3.Adolescents and their maternal grandfathers: When the adolescents are younger、the parents encourage grandparent-grandchild interactions、and the maternal grandfathers and grandchildren are living in the same areas、it is more possible for the relationship to become Passive. When the communications with the maternal grandfathers are better、the parents encourage grandparent-grandchild interactions、and the maternal grandfathers and grandchildren are living in the same areas、it is more possible for the relationship to become Influential. 4.Adolescents and their maternal grandmothers: When the parents encourage grandparent-grandchild interactions、and the maternal grandmothers and grandchildren are living in the same areas、it is more possible for the relationship to become Passive. When the communications with the maternal grandmothers are better、the grandmothers are healthier、the parents encourage grandparent-grandchild interactions、the adolescents』 families reside in urban areas、and the maternal grandmothers and grandchildren are living in the same areas、it is more possible for the relationship to become Influential.
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