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The Relationship between Proactive Personality, Self-Efficacy, and Performance of Interns in Hospitality Industry: The Moderating Effect of Trust
Through longitudinal design, the present study examined the mechanism between interns’ proactive personality and their performance in internship and the influence of trust on interns. In this study, hospitality interns were recruited. The mediation effect of internship self-efficacy on the relation of interns’ proactive personality and their performance in internship has been examined. Then, the perceived trust of interns in their supervisors has been investigated to see whether it will strengthen the link between proactive personality and internship self-efficacy. Further, to the interns with lower proactive personality, this study also examined whether internship self-efficacy would mediate the relationship between proactive personality and performance in internship when they highly trust their supervisor. The participants were 176 hospitality interns who major in hospitality management in Taiwan. By questionnaire, data were collected with 2 time points with a 2-month interval. The results indicated that internship self-efficacy would mediate the relationship between interns’ proactive personality and their performance in internship. In addition, cross-legged analysis revealed that there is a top-down directional effect between proactive personality and internship self-efficacy. However, trust would not strengthen the relation between proactive personality and internship self-efficacy. For the interns with lower proactive personality, when they highly trust their supervisors, their internship self-efficacy would mediate the relationship between their proactive personality and their performance in internship. In other words, when interns possess higher proactive personality, it could increase their internship self-efficacy and then perform better. On the contrary, to the interns who have lower proactive personality, the relationship between proactive personality and internship self-efficacy could be strength by the trust perception from supervisors and further improve their performance. Finally, future study could classify interns’ proactive performance, for example, job behaviors, strategic behaviors, or fit behaviors, and explore the contextual effects and the occasions which would induce the expression of proactive personality.
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