Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://rportal.lib.ntnu.edu.tw:80/handle/20.500.12235/86797
Title: 幼兒園主管工作壓力與因應策略之研究
A Study on Preschool Directors’ Job Stress and Coping Strategies
Authors: 林育瑋
Lin, Yu-Wei
陳淑娟
Chen, Shu-Chuan
Keywords: 幼兒園主管
工作壓力
因應策略
正向心理資本
preschool director
job stress
coping strategy
psychological capital
Issue Date: 2016
Abstract: 幼兒園主管工作壓力與因應策略之研究 摘 要 有鑒於成功因應工作壓力主管之經驗值得探究與學習,可惜探討幼兒園主管正向心理資本與工作壓力之質性研究極少。本研究邀請十八位具備積極正向特質、擔任行政職務超過2年以上之幼兒園主管,採用質性研究的觀點,佐以深度訪談、相關文獻蒐集之方式,探討主管之工作壓力來源、工作壓力因應策略,並分析主管所具備的正向心理資本內涵。 本研究之發現如下: 壹、幼兒園主管之工作狀況 整體而言,專任與兼任主管的上班時間大同小異,然兼任主管卻常因業務無法準時完成而延長加班,且工作內容差異頗多。幼兒園規模與人員編制、職務分工息息相關。園內行政人員較少的主管不論是專任或兼任,均須辦理較多的行政業務、總務、文書、補助…等。編製兩班以上的兼任主管雖有部分業務交由園內教師協助辦理,但仍須負擔大部分的行政業務。獨立設置園的專任主管則因為園內編製人力較為充裕,專任主管多在交辦工作後進行督導、統整的工作。 貳、幼兒園主管的工作壓力來源 參與本研究之專任主管與兼任主管所面臨的壓力來源如下: 一、「新環境與新業務」都是專任主管與兼任主管的壓力來源。 二、「配合上級單位辦理或推展業務」所增加的工作量,是專任主管與兼任主管的壓力來源。 三、「做事不難做人難」是專任主管與兼任主管工作上最大的體悟。主管一致認為與「人」有關的問題最難解決,也是最大的工作壓力來源。這些人是指工作上需要接觸的對象,包括:專任主管所說的下屬、家長;兼任主管所說的搭班教師、其他幼兒園教師、小學處室人員、家長等。 四、「業務量太多」、「教學與行政工作失衡」是兼任主管極大的工作壓力來源。 叁、幼兒園主管的壓力因應策略 主管之壓力因應策略分為四大項,分別是:面對承擔並尋求解決、資源策略、調整心態與做法、轉換情境。 一、面對、承擔並尋求解決:包括以身作則,全力以赴、規劃調配及善用時間、行事曆提醒與檢核、建立人際關係與溝通環境等。 二、資源策略:包括整合內部資源,如在園內設立工作群組、或尋求教師職工或家長志工團等校內資源;以及引進外部資源,如親人好友、其他主管、教授、社區居民或友人…等,提供人力物力、專業諮詢、或情緒支持。 三、調整心態與做法:主管能調整心態,重新建立自己的態度與認知,進而改變做法,尋求平衡,且主管深知「看法決定壓力多寡」的道理。 四、轉換情境:暫時脫離壓力情境或事件,讓緊張的心情獲得舒緩。具體方式包括參與教學活動與幼兒互動、閱讀、休息或放空、休閒或親友聚會。 研究發現,主管雖然遭遇許多困境與壓力,但在遇到壓力任務的當下都是積極的解決問題者,試圖經由各種策略突破難關,克服挑戰。最重要的,主管將「壓力」視為動力,如同力量的泉源。 肆、幼兒園主管的正向心理資本分析 參與本研究之幼兒園主管具備高度的心理資本,除了具備自我效能、希望、樂觀、韌性等特質。除此之外,本研究之主管還具備有「展現理性與勝任人際關係」、「使命感」兩大特質。 一、自我效能 參與本研究之主管樂於迎接挑戰、能充實自己的管理與工作經驗、充滿自信心的面對各項問題,更在每一次的挑戰成功的過程中獲得新的學習,增進自信心,形成正向的循環。 二、希望 本研究發現主管具有具備行動力與規劃執行能力,亦即具有「路徑思考」(pathway thinking)之能力。且主管們能從工作成果與服務對象的回饋中,尋得或創造各種型態的正向時刻,使其工作更有意義。主管表現出來的激勵思考之意志力(willpower),也是積極具希望的心理狀態。 三、樂觀 主管具備的樂觀資本,表現在「正向自我激勵」、「幽默感」與「感恩心」三方面。在正向自我激勵方面,主管能以正面心態解釋自己遇到的困難,並自我鼓勵,以「正向思考」、「座右銘激勵鞭策」、「自我肯定」的方式自我激勵。且主管能以幽默的心態或自我解嘲的方式面對各種壓力情境。認為充滿壓力與挑戰的事件帶給自己更豐富的工作經驗,以感恩的心態看待過去的危機、壓力與磨練。 四、韌性 參與主管從「反省力」、「嘗試學習,吃苦當吃補」展露出韌性的特質。藉由自我反省與檢討,修正自己工作或人際互動的方式。其次,主管以不怕苦難的心態,主動爭取困難的任務。在回顧過往的挫折與痛苦時,能以學習的角度珍視從挫折中獲得的經驗,把吃苦當吃補。 五、展現理性與勝任人際關係 主管在待人處事上,除了自我要求要理性、溫和、有禮貌、做好情緒管理之外,更積極地與他人建立友好的關係,常表達對他人的關懷。 六、使命感 主管們對幼兒教育懷有高度使命感,認為自己的工作十分有意義。對學校、幼兒、家長、與他人都有幫助。幼教工作對主管來說是服務與使命,這份使命感也更彰顯主管的工作意義。 伍、壓力因應理論與正向心理資本理論之結合 本研究以Folkman(2008)之壓力因應理論模型為基礎,以正向心理資本之四個構面(自我效能、希望、樂觀、韌性) 加上本研究新增之二構面(展現理性與勝任人際關係、使命感)進行整合,統整出「正向心理資本壓力因應模型」,以利未來相關研究進行討論與對話。 最後,依據本研究之發現,提出對幼兒園主管、幼教相關單位及未來研究之建議。
The Study on Preschool Directors’ Job Stress and Coping Strategies Abstract In Taiwan, preschool directors are facing various types of pressure which would cause serious effects for the schools. In fact, successful experiences of how preschool directors cope with working stress are worth exploring to show psychological capital as a positive resource for overcoming stress. However, relevant qualitative researches are rare. Therefore, this qualitative study provides ample and profound findings regarding preschool directors’ job stress, coping strategies of working pressure, and analysis of the psychological capital they possess. Eighteen preschool directors with positive traits were invited to join the study. All of them have more than 2 years administrative duties, and responsibilities. The study was conducted by in-depth interviews, accompanied by relevant document files. The main findings are as follows: 1.Working Situation of Directors In general, the working time of both full-time and part-time directors are similar, but work contents are different. In addition, the part-time directors usually work late and longer, they all have heavy burden. Either part-time or most of full-time preschool directors need to handle more administrative works, because there are fewer administrative employees in the preschool. Some full-time directors have other administrative employees to help her to do paperworks, general affairs, and so on, so they can arrange time to do teaching supervision, and help teachers’ professional development. 2. Stressors of Directors (1) " New environment and new administrative works" are the common stress sources of both full-time and part-time directors. (2) The increased workload of conducting and promoting government’s educational policy is also a source of stress for both full-time and part-time directors. (3) The difficulties of keeping good relationship with school personnel are considered the greatest challenge for both full-time and part-time directors. School personnel include school colleagues, partners, administrative staff and parents. All preschool directors agreed that "people" problems are the most difficult one to deal with, and also the biggest source of job stress. (4) “Overloading” and “the imbalance of teaching and administrative work” are the main source of stress for the part-time directors. 3. Useful Coping Strategies of Directors: (1) Be responsible and seeking solutions. (2) Make us of resources, integrating internal and external resources. (3) Make adjustment of attitude and practices. (4) Change or leave the context. Although preschool directors encounter many difficulties and job stress, all the research participants are positive problem solvers by trying a variety of strategies to break through the difficulties and to overcome the challenges. Most importantly, the directors regard "stress" as the power, as the source of strength to move on. 4. The Psychological Capital of Directors (1)Self Efficacy: the directors are willing to face the challenges, to enrich their own management skills and work experiences, and to face all problems with self-confidence . Whenever they overcome a challenge, their self-confidence is improved. They know learning by doing. (2)Hope: the directors have " pathway thinking " capability, the ability to execute mobility and planning. Moreover, they found many ways to create positive moments in common lifetime, and built more meaning of their career. (3)Optimism: the directos all are self-encouraged , grateful and having sense of humor (4)Resilience: the directors show resilience capital from " reflection "and " learning by trying and doing". (5)Emphasis on rationality and interpersonal relationships: the directors ask themselves to be rational, gentle, polite, good emotional management with personnel, and they would like to establish friendly relations with others. (6)Mission: the directors hold a great sense of mission toward early childhood education. They view their work meaningful. Their mission is to help children, parents, teachers , family and so on. 5. The combination of Folkman’s coping model and psychological capital theory. According to the findings, some suggestions have been proposed for preschool directors, government of education, and future research.
URI: http://etds.lib.ntnu.edu.tw/cgi-bin/gs32/gsweb.cgi?o=dstdcdr&s=%22http://etds.lib.ntnu.edu.tw/cgi-bin/gs32/gsweb.cgi?o=dstdcdr&s=id=%22G0894060052%22.&%22.id.&
http://rportal.lib.ntnu.edu.tw:80/handle/20.500.12235/86797
Other Identifiers: G0894060052
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