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Effect of Migration on Children's Academic Performance and Well-being in China
China Family Panel Studies
This research focused on the different types of children migration including four aspects: urban children, migrating children, left-behind children and rural children in the Mainland China. It also examined the mechanism between migration, family capital, urban-rural gap and children's academic performance as well as well-being. Based on the data from the China Family Panel Survey (CFPS) in 2010 and 2014, we selected 2,268 children who studied in primary and secondary school in 2010 (at the age of 10-15) and studied in senior high school in 2014 (at the age of 14-19) as well as 538 communities’ samples and 25 province samples where children lived. The Hierarchical Linear Model (HLM) was used. The main findings are as follows: 1. Children’s academic performance varied with the types of children migration in primary and middle school. Compared with the left-behind children, other rural children were poorer in either word or mathematics performance. Nevertheless, there was no association between children's well-being and migration status. 2. The effect of family capital on children's academic performance and well-being varied depending on the types of children migration. In terms of word performance, compared with left-behind children, the more financial capital or cultural capital rural children had, the better performance they showed in the period of primary school, middle school and senior high school. In terms of well-being, compared with left-behind children, the more social capital in the family urban children or rural children had, the higher well-being they showed in the primary school, middle school and senior high school. 3. The residence environment (urban-rural gap) is also a factor influencing children’s academic performance in the period of primary school and middle school. The effect of migration on children's academic performance is not due to the urban-rural gap of the residential environment. However, residence environment does not have a significant effect on children's well-being.
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