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Title: 幼兒時期的想像友伴之探究
The study of imaginary companions in early childhood
Authors: 簡淑真
Chien, Shu-Chen
Liu, Ting-Ju
Keywords: 想像友伴
imaginary companions
early childhood
imaginary play
Issue Date: 2016
Abstract: 本研究主要探討幼年時期的想像友伴現象,採用「質性研究法」,探究不同研究對象(幼兒、幼兒家長、成人)所回應之想像友伴的情形,研究資料取自:三位8歲以下幼兒的訪談內容以及圖畫、幼兒家長問卷、13位成人的訪談內容。本研究之重要發現摘述如下: 一、 幼兒若擁有「看不見的友伴」,則有較多想像性的描述,推測是因「看不見的友伴」較不受限於實物是否存在於眼前,幼兒較能發揮想像。 二、 年紀稍長的幼兒雖然會和想像友伴互動,但可能已知想像友伴是自己「假裝」的。 三、 幼兒會因當下的情境脈絡,而影響其所述的想像友伴故事,推測幼兒隨時接收到外在訊息,因此使其所述的故事不一致而充滿變化。 四、 成人對於想像友伴的記憶得以長存的原因可能包括:想像友伴多為擬人化物體,得以藉物回憶;另想像友伴帶給他們的情感或是與特殊事件有關聯,可能使得其印象深刻。 五、 關於想像友伴出現的時間點可約略歸結如下:受訪者創造想像友伴起始年齡約為2至3歲,互動高峰約在幼兒園階段至小學中、高年級,而於小學中、高年級之後想像友伴逐漸消逝,推測可能是受訪者著重現實世界的比重,大過包含想像友伴在內的想像世界。 六、 成人受訪者大多賦予想像友伴正向的意義,除了認為有助於心理健康,其他益處包括:促進想像力、更能換位思考、獲得成就感、感受到主控權、對於未曾經歷的事情也能產生自信、與自我對話的機會…等。但據受訪幼兒的回應,他們可能只是為了遊戲樂趣而創造想像友伴,尚未思考到其中的意義。 七、 若受訪者擁有一群想像友伴,他們幾乎都會讓這些友伴套用現實中常見的人際關係。他們可能透過設想其想像友伴的關係與互動,揣摩現實生活複雜的人際社會互動。 八、 想像友伴的故事題材大多皆為現實與虛構的情節交錯,推測故事題材或許受到以下因素影響:玩具、影視節目與故事、自身生活經驗。 對於未來研究的建議包括:對想像友伴消失階段的小學中、高年級學童進行訪談、探討想像友伴在手足間的共享性、探討家長對於想像友伴的態度與影響。
This study focuses on the phenomenon of imaginary companions in early childhood. Qualitative research method was used to investigate different subjects’ (children, the parents of young children, and adults) responses to imaginary companions. The information was obtained from: interviews with three children under the age of 8 years old, pictures from these children, and questionnaires from the parents of these children. In addition, 13 interviews were conducted with adults . The important findings of this study are summarized as follows: 1.A young child with an “invisible friend”, can provide more imaginative descriptions. This is presumably as the “invisible friend” is not limited to the physical plane, the young child is better at exercising his or her imagination. 2.The older children still interact with their imaginary companion, even though they definitely know that their imaginary companion is what they pretend. 3.Due to the influence of the context of interview, children may also change the story what they told about their imaginary companions. Suppose childern always receive external information, that makes their stories various and inconsistent. 4.For adults, the reasons that they still remember their imaginary companions may include: for most, their imaginary companions were personified objects, and so these memories could be recalled; and for others, they gave emotions to their imaginary companions or imaginary companions were related to special events, which may have led to a deeper impression within their memory. 5.The periods about imaginary companions can be approximately summarized as follows: respondents created their imaginary companion at about the age of 2 or 3, with the peak of this interaction around from high grades in elementary school. However, after that, these imaginary companions gradually disappeared. It can be speculated that as the respondents were placing more emphasis on the real world, giving less attention to their imaginary companions in their imaginary world. 6.Most adults have a positive association with their imaginary companions, in addition to believing that they help with mental health, other benefits include: promoting imagination, greater empathy, a sense of accomplishment, mastery over emotions, producing self-confidence for experiences that have yet to be undertaken, and providing opportunities for self-dialogue. However, according to the children's responses, they might just create an imaginary companions in order to engage in imaginary play with them, without considering the significance or benefits. 7.If any respondents had a group of imaginary companions, these imaginary companions almost always copied frequently seen real-life relationships. Perhaps they would use these imaginary companions’ relationships and interactions to analyze complex real-life interpersonal social interactions. 8.The story themes of imaginary companions all interweave aspects of reality and fiction, which suggests that stories may be subject to the following factors: toys, TV shows and stories, and their own life experiences. The suggestions of that future studies could include: interviews with high grade elementary students(in this periods, imaginary companions gradually disappeared), to investigate the commonalities or shared experiences with imaginary companions. The attitude of parents towards imaginary companions, and the influence on their children, could also be investigated.
Other Identifiers: G060106031E
Appears in Collections:學位論文

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