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The correlations of diet, regular exercise, body composition, and the biomarkers in plasma and urine of the elderly
|Abstract:||本研究目的在探討高齡者飲食攝取與規律運動習慣，對於身體組成及生理代謝之影響。研究對象為台北市大安區60歲（含）以上，有自主意識及運動能力的居民56人。依性別、運動習慣分為高運動男性13人、低運動男性13人、高運動女性16人、低運動女性14人，共四組。資料收集包括：問卷調查、脈搏、血壓測量、身體組成分析、跟骨廣頻超音波衰減率、握力與腳力之測量，血液及尿液生化分析。所得數據進行差異性測試、相關迴歸及分析。結果顯示高運動男性每日熱量攝取、蛋、豆、魚、肉類攝取量、右手握力及左腳睜眼單腳站立時間顯著高於低運動男性 (p< .05) ，而兩組女性則無顯著差異。同性別之高、低運動組的身體組成、雙腳跟骨廣頻超音波衰減率、尿中排泄物及尿液酸鹼值均無顯著差異 (p > .05) 。高運動男性之血漿支鏈胺基酸濃度顯著低於低運動男性者 (p < .05) ，兩組女性則無顯著差異 (p > .05) 。身體質量指數分別與體脂肪重百分比 (r = .605, p < .0001) 、腰臀比 (r = .795, p < .0001) 、三頭肌皮脂厚 (r = .692, p < .0001) 呈正相關；體脂肪重百分比與腰臀比 (r = .714, p < .0001)、 三頭肌皮脂厚 (r = .973, p < .0001) 亦呈正相關。高齡者之蛋白質攝取量分別與肌肉量百分比 (r = .284, p = .0337)、血漿支鏈胺基酸濃度 (r = .320, p = .0174) 呈現正相關，與尿中三甲基組胺酸濃度則呈負相關 (r = -.311, p = .0196) 。而高運動組之蛋白質攝取量與左 (r = .532, p = .0030) 、右 (r = .470, p = .0100) 手握力呈正相關；低運動組則無此相關。尿鈣排泄量與高齡者之骨量 (r = -.433, p = .0009) 、右腳跟骨廣頻超音波衰減率分別呈現負相關(r = -.307, p = .0212)，與尿中羥基脯胺酸濃度則呈正相關 (r = .389, p = .0030) 。骨量與左 (r = .687 , p = .0001)、右(r = .722, p = .0001) 腳跟骨廣頻超音波衰減率均為正相關。而高運動組之骨量與左 (r = .535, p = .0028) 、右 (r = .404, p = .0300) 腳站立時間呈正相關；低運動組則無此相關。因此，建議高齡者應攝取足夠之能量與營養素，並配合規律運動，才能有效地增進握力及腳力、維持骨骼之健全，進而提升生命之品質。|
The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship of diet, regular exercise, body composition, and the biomarkers in the plasma and urine of the elderly. Healthy and free-living older adults (n = 56, ages ≧ 60 years) voluntarily participated in this study. Based on gender and regular exercise time, the elderly were divided into four groups: high exercise males (n = 13), low exercise males (n = 13), high exercise females (n = 16), and low exercise females (n = 14). The habits on diet and exercise were recorded. The parameters including pulse rate, blood pressure, body composition, calcaneus broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA), grip strength and single leg standing duration; plasma amino acid concentrations; urinary urea nitrogen, 3-methylhistidine (3-MH), hydroxyproline (HP), and calcium excretions, and urinary pH value were measured. The energy, egg, bean, fish and meat consumption, the right hand grip strength and the left leg standing duration of the high exercise males were significantly higher than those of low exercise males (p< .05). Within the same gender, there was no significant difference in body composition measurement, BUA, urinary excretions and pH value between the high exercise and low exercise groups. The plasma branched-chain amino acid concentrations of high exercise males were significantly lower than that of low exercise males (p < .05). Body mass index was positively correlated with percentage of body fat mass (r = .605, p < .0001), waist-to-hip ratio (r = .795, p < .0001), and triceps skinfold thickness (r = .692, p< .0001). Percentage of body fat mass was positively correlated with waist-to-hip ratio (r = .714, p < .0001) and triceps skinfold thickness (r = .973, p < .0001). Daily protein intake was positively correlated with percentage of body muscle mass (r = .284, p = .0337) and plasma BCAA concentrations (r = .320, p = .0174); and negatively correlated with urinary 3-MH excretion (r = -.311, p = .0196). There were significant correlations between the daily protein intake and left hand grip strength (r= .532, p = .0030), and right hand grip strength (r = .470, p = .0100) of the high exercise group, but not the low exercise group. Urinary calcium was negatively correlated with bone mass (r = -.433, p = .0009) and right calcaneus BUA (r = -.307, p = .0212); and positively correlated with urinary HP excretion (r = .389, p = .0030). Bone mass was positively correlated with left (r = .687, p< .0001) and right (r = .722, p < .0001) calcaneus BUA. There were significant correlations between the bone mass and left leg standing duration (r = .535, p = .0028), and right leg standing duration (r = .404, p = .0300) of the high exercise group, but not the low exercise group. In conclusion, with adequate intakes of energy and nutrients, regular exercise enhanced muscle strength and bone homeostasis in the elderly.
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