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An Error Analysis Study of Consonants by Intermediate Level Russian learners of Mandarin Chinese and its Pedagogical Application
contrastive analysis of consonants
Chinese Mandarin teaching
首先第一章為本文研究目的與範圍。第二章進行相關的文獻探討，包含華俄語音對比研究與俄語母語者華語語音偏誤研究，並歸納出俄語母語者學習華語輔音常見偏誤以及造成偏誤的原因，探討學習者為語音教學提出的教學原則和方法。第三章對照華俄語輔音，找出母語可能對目標語產生的正遷移及負遷移，進行難點預測。第四章說明本研究的研究方法。第五章進行問卷調查與測驗結果分析與探討。結果顯示，中級俄語母語者學習華語輔音主要偏誤為：送氣不送氣音偏誤–受試者將華語送氣輔音發成不送氣輔音或送氣不足的音；清音濁音化–受試者將華語清輔音發成濁音；舌尖後音與舌尖前音混淆 – 受試者將舌尖後音發成舌尖前音或舌尖後與舌尖前之間的音；舌面音與俄語軟輔音混淆–受試者將華語舌面輔音念成俄語軟輔音。第六章將以具體簡明的教學步驟，說明在實際進行俄語為母語學生的華語教學時，該如何針對發音偏誤，進行有效的糾正，提高學生的發音準確度；另外，依據發音難度的不同，由簡而難安排教學順序，提供教師課程設計時的參考，以進行更有效率的輔音教學。第七章歸納出本研究成果以及對於未來的研究方向提出一些建議。|
In current trends of Chinese Mandarin teaching, the first aspect of language learning that all students encounter is phonetics. Phonetics as an aspect of foreign language learning is very important because it creates the foundation of the whole language learning experience. Nowadays, more and more Russian learners choose Mandarin as their first or second foreign language. There are many Russian learners studying in various Mandarin training centers throughout Taiwan, and the phonetics errors of these students can be distinguished from other students. However, most Mandarin teachers do not have a Russian language background, so when correcting their students’ phonetic errors, they are not prepared to meet the needs of Russian learners. In addition, Russian and Chinese refer to different language families, and there are a lot of differences in the phonetic systems of these two languages, but the most obvious difference is their consonants. Therefore, this paper has chosen Russian learners as research subjects and Chinese consonants as a research topic in hopes of helping teachers choose effective methods for teaching the pronunciation of Chinese consonants. In chapter 1, the purpose and range of the study is introduced. Chapter 2 is the literature review, which includes previous studies of Russian and Chinese phonetic comparisons and phonetic error analysis; it also summarizes the most common consonant errors of Russian Mandarin learners and the possible causes of these errors; and finally, it reviews phonetic pedagogy proposed by various researchers. Chapter 3 compares Russian and Chinese consonants and predicts potential difficulties for Russian learners. Chapter 4 introduces the research methods of the study. Chapter 5 covers the experiment’s results and discussion. The results show that the main consonant errors of Russian Mandarin learners are: aspirated and unaspirated sound errors, voiced and voiceless sounds errors, confusing retroflex sounds with alveolar sounds, and confusing palatal sounds with Russian soft sounds. Chapter 6 provides a series of consonant teaching strategies, including effective teaching methods, teaching steps and typical exercises, in hopes of helping teachers with Chinese consonant teaching and error correction. Chapter 7 summarizes the conclusions of the study and addresses some suggestions for future studies.
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