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Perception and Production of Chinese Voiceless Bilabial Plosives by Korean Learners
Teaching Chinese as a second/foreign language
Speech perception& production
VOT (Voice-Onset Time)
|Abstract:||華語清塞音可分為：「不送氣音」與「送氣音」兩種；而韓語清塞音則分為：「硬音」（不送氣緊音）、「平音」(一般被歸類不送氣的鬆音)及「激音（強送氣緊音）」三種。筆者觀察到韓國人所說的華語不送氣塞音常被華語母語者聽辨為送氣音，並且在教授韓語過程中發現，台灣人常把韓語平音聽成激音。據고미숙 (2001) 等前人研究，韓國人會將華語「第一聲」與「第四聲」音節裡的「不送氣塞音」感知為韓語裡的「硬音」，如ㅃ[p*]等；而將「第二聲」與「第三聲」音節裡的「不送氣」塞音感知爲韓語的「平音」，如ㅂ[p或pʰ]等。儘管韓國語音韻學傳統上將韓語「平音」歸類為「不送氣音」，但根據Lisker& Abramson (1964) 等人研究發現，平音之平均VOT比硬音長，且平音位於詞首之VOT比位於其他語境時更長。 故此，筆者推測，韓國人學華語之塞音偏誤可能與韓語平音之VOT值（即送氣長度）有關。
爲瞭解韓國人對華語塞音感知與產出上的中介音情況以及臺灣人對此中介音之反應，本文以30名韓籍華語學習者為對象，進行了三階段的實驗，實驗材料為華語四個聲調的雙唇不送氣塞音ㄅ與雙唇送氣塞音ㄆ之單音節詞。第一階段為感知實驗，研究結果與上述前人之研究相符。第二階段為產出實驗，語料分析發現，部分受試者所讀之華語不送氣塞音之VOT達40ms以上。第三階段請臺灣人聽審上述語料，發現韓國人說華語「送氣塞音」之偏誤率只有0.8%;而「不送氣塞音」偏誤率卻達10.8%（被聽審為「送氣」或「接近送氣」），其中各聲調偏誤率依高低排序為：第二聲（23.3%）> 第三聲（13.4%）> 第一聲（6.7%）> 第四聲（0%）。上述研究結果符合前人與筆者之預測。
Chinese voiceless stops can be divided into two types: "unaspirated stops" and "aspirated stops"; and Korean voiceless stops are divided into: "fortis", "lenis", and "aspirated stops", so the Korean students are often confused between the corresponding Korean stops and the Chinese stops. According to previous research (고미숙, 2001 etc.), Korean learners perceive the Chinese stops in "first tone" and "fourth tone" as Korean "unaspirated fortis" like "ㅃ [p*] etc."; whereas the stops in "second tone" and "third tone" are perceived as the "lenis" in Korean, like "ㅂ[p or pʰ] etc.". Although the Korean lenis stops is classified into unaspirated stops in general Korean phonology, but Lisker& Abramson (1964) etc. found lenis’ VOT longer than fortis, especially in word-initial. Hence, The hypothesis of this research supposed that after hearing Chinese unaspirated stops in the word-initial position with a second or third tone, Korean students will be influenced by the L1 transfer, and therefore produce a “lenis stops which have slight aspirated (the VOT is longer than unaspirated)”, This may cause native speakers of Chinese to perceive the Korean pronunciations as the Chinese "aspirated" sound, which thereby creates problems in communication. In order to better understand Korean students’ perception and production of Chinese stops, as well as the perception of their pronunciation by native speakers of Chinese, a three-phase experiment was conducted: The first phase tested 30 Korean students’ perception of Chinese bilabial stops, The results of this phase were consistent with previous research described above. The second phase required the Korean students to record Chinese bilabial stops and analyze the VOT, and the results found that some subjects speak Chinese ‘unaspirated stops’ with a VOT greater than 40ms, which is likely due to the influence of their L1 transfer (Korean slight aspirated lenis). The third phase required Taiwanese students to listen to the Korean pronunciations from the second phase. The results found that Korean students pronounced 2 tokens (0.8%) of the Chinese aspirated stops "incorrectly". However, results of the Chinese "unaspirated stops" test revealed that the 13 tokens (10.8%) are considered "problematic", especially 7 tokens of the second tone (23.3%) and 4 tokens of the third tone (13.4%)’s error rate is higher than first tone (6.7%) or fourth tone (0%), the reason is the VOT is more than 40ms. Due to the variation between the phonological systems of Chinese and Korean and the acoustic cues that vary in a particular phonemic environment (the unaspirated stops in initial-word), interlanguage will be considered a "mistake" or "difficult to distinguish". Therefore, Chinese teachers educating Korean students and Korean students themselves need to recognize and understand this phenomenon in order to improve instructional efficiency, avoid communication problems or potential pronunciation error fossilization. I believe that they have to more practice the Chinese unaspirated stops in word-initial with second tone and third tone and should consider or apply the Korean fortis to practice Chinese unaspirated stops. Teaching methods that help Korean students practice correct Chinese stop pronunciation can be developed from this research, and certainly a subject for future research.
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