Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://rportal.lib.ntnu.edu.tw:80/handle/20.500.12235/86571
Title: 初級華語及日語教材文化意識研究—以《實用視聽華語》及《大家的日本語》為例
Cultural Awareness in Beginning Chinese and Japanese Textbook -Using Practical Audio-Visual Chinese and Minna no Ninhongo as Reference
Authors: 曾金金
Chin-chin Tseng
葉力嘉
Li-chia Yeh
Keywords: 文化意識
中華文化
教材分析
集體主義
不確定性迴避
cultural awareness
Chinese culture
material analysis
collectivism
uncertainty avoidance
Issue Date: 2014
Abstract: 「文化意識」意指對自身文化價值觀、信念及行為方式的覺察和反省能力。從潛在課程的角度來看,語言教材是傳達目的語中隱蔽文化的管道,語言教材的內容能反映不同文化的「文化意識」。 本研究使用內容分析法探究初級華語及初級日語教材的文化意識。研究分兩部分,第一部分參考Hymes(1972)的語境架構及Sleeter(2007)的教材分析法,從語言教材全冊目錄與各課單元設定、圖片設定、角色設定以及對話場景設定(如:餐廳、商店等)檢視教材結構特點。第二部分參考Searle(1976)的言語行為分類及會話分析的話輪和語對概念,統計課文言語行為語對出現的種類與頻率。最後以質化角度,比較兩冊教材出現頻率較高的「詢問」、「感謝」類言語行為語對,以及兩冊教材皆出現的「介紹」以及「評論」類言語行為語對與課文內容架構的關係。 根據統計,《實用視聽華語》教材課文對話的語境架構不明確,圖片、角色形象及課文對話未提供明確場景設定;而《大家的日本語》則明確架構出課文對話語境。《大家的日本語》課文對話的角色身分、場景設定明確,反映教材編寫者具有客體意識,能在教材中引導學習者意識日語的語境因素,反映日本文化的高度不確定性迴避傾向特點。 《實用視聽華語》以「詢問用語」為最多,佔31%,其次為「評論用語」,佔21%,「評論用語」出現比例高反映中華文化給予主體發表己見的空間。《大家的日本語》以「感謝用語」為多,佔25%,其次為「詢問用語」,佔22%。日語教材的「感謝用語」反映日本文化重視維持人際關係的客體意識特點。 本研究建議華語文教材課文編寫可參考日語教材課文對話情境設定,明確設定出教材和課文對話的語境因素,並以學習者需求為導向編寫教材,以引導學習者意識華語的語境因素,才能提高教材針對性。
Cultural awareness is the ability to sense and reflect upon one’s own culture’s values, beliefs and behaviors. From the perspective of hidden curriculum, language learning material can convey the hidden culture, and reflect the cultural awareness of its cultural background. This research used content analysis to investigate cultural awareness as found in a Chinese and a Japanese beginning level textbook. There were 2 parts to this research. The first part referenced Hymes’ (1972) concept of context structure and Sleeter’s (2007) analysis of materials to investigate the structural differences between Chinese and Japanese textbooks. The source of materials included materials catalogs, units, pictures, character settings and scenes in dialogues (e.g. restaurant, shop). The second part of this research referenced Searle’s (1976) speech act categories, and used turn taking and adjacent pairs in conversation analysis to investigate speech act adjacent pairs in Chinese and Japanese textbooks. The study concluded by comparing “query”, “gratitude”, “introduce” and “comment” speech act adjacent pairs in Chinese and Japanese textbooks. The results showed the dialogue context structure of the Chinese textbook is indefinite; also, the character images, pictures, and the scene of dialogues are not clear. However, the Japanese textbook had a clearer context structure in the dialogue. The clear structure of the Japanese textbook demonstrates that the textbook editor has an awareness of the target users of the textbook, and can lead the user to sense the importance of context factors for Japanese. The Chinese textbook Practical Audio-Visual Chinese had a ratio of 31% “query” and 21%“comment”. The greater use of “comment” in the Chinese textbook demonstrates that Chinese culture gives people more space to make comments. The Japanese textbook Minna no Ninhongo had a ratio of 25% “gratitude” and 22% “query”. The use of “gratitude” in the Japanese textbook reflects the tendency of people in Japan to maintain relationships with others. It also reflects the object-oriented characteristic of Japanese culture. The research suggests that editors of Chinese language teaching materials could learn from how the editors of Japanese language teaching materials design dialogue settings, in order to attain greater clarity for presentation of the language context. Using the learner’s needs as a guide, the editor’s materials should lead the learner to an awareness of the dialogue context in order to increase the appropriateness of the materials for the learner.
URI: http://etds.lib.ntnu.edu.tw/cgi-bin/gs32/gsweb.cgi?o=dstdcdr&s=%22http://etds.lib.ntnu.edu.tw/cgi-bin/gs32/gsweb.cgi?o=dstdcdr&s=id=%22GN0699800124%22.&%22.id.&
http://rportal.lib.ntnu.edu.tw:80/handle/20.500.12235/86571
Other Identifiers: GN0699800124
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