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Title: 中文遠距教學的跨文化言談分析與應用
An Intercultural Conversation Analysis and Application of Chinese Distance Teaching
Authors: 謝佳玲
Keywords: 遠距教學
Synchronous distance instruction
Conversation Analysis
Chinese Teaching
Issue Date: 2014
Abstract: 言談分析(conversational analysis)經常用於檢測日常生活中的言語行為和第二語言(second language)的課室表現,研究發現能恰如其分地使用第二語言溝通,是學習者的一大難點,故本論文以語用學的禮貌現象(politeness phenomena)作為理論背景,並使用Brown和Levinson(1978, 1987)的面子威脅(face-threatening act)理論作為研究架構探討學習者的言談表現。從文獻中發現語境、文化、社會因素會影響和在目標語地區停留的時間等因素皆會影響其第二語言發展的精熟度。 本論文之主要目的在觀察中文遠距教學情境中師生的真實對話,以歸納學習者運用何種策略和形式用中文進行跨文化討論,並藉由問卷請臺灣的中文母語者評斷學習者的語料,最後找出學習上的難點。研究結果顯示,學習者能意識到師生的社會距離和權力的差異,因而在言談中使用某些禮貌策略來表達,然而母語者則傾向使用更多元的策略,顯示學習者受母語和語言能力的影響,較無法順應語境而使用更精確的言談表現。在語言形式方面,學習者會因受限於既有的第二語言知識而出現失誤,如選用錯誤的否定詞或連詞等等而造成語意不連貫的情況。推究學習者的失誤原因,雖並未受在目標語地區停留時間因素的顯著影響,但跨文化和遠距教學情境的特徵卻會影響他們對語用策略的選用,使得他們較面對面溝通採用更直接的策略,並且會以笑聲和停頓等非語言因素降低對聽話者的面子威脅。 本研究的貢獻在於透過言談分析方法研究真實的學習語料,進而提供實證性的中文遠距教學跨文化言談分析結果,最後歸納出學習者常見的問題並提供具體的教學建議,以幫助教師輔助學習者成功掌握中文語用策略。
Coversation analysis (CA) is often used to examine the speech act in daily life and second language classes. Since it is considered difficult for learners to perform in a manner that is considered polite in the target culture, this study is based on Brown and Levinson’s (1978, 1987) framework known as “face-threatening act” (FTA) to observe the learners’ talk in class. Recent research on CA has found that context, culture, and social factors are the variables for deciding the particular type of interaction. For second language learners, the language transfer of their mother language to the target language and the length of time spent in the target language environment can also influence their language performance in target language. This study attempts to investigate how Chinese learners in synchronous distance instruction use Chinese to dicuss cross-cultural topics. Their language performance was measured through tests judged by Chinese native speakers from Taiwan. The results of this study demonstrate that Chinese language learners tend to use politeness strategies according to their awareness of the social distance and difference in power. However, native Chinese speakers prefer to choose multiple strategies, which indicates that the Chinese learners do not communicate in an authentic and polite manner due to the transfer of their mother language and the lack of language proficiency. It can be argued that the length of stay in a Chinese-speaking country is the cause of this lack of proficiency. However, in this case, it is caused by cultural differences and the context of a synchronous distance environment. As a result, the students use more direct strategies in a synchronous distance environment than in a face-to-face situation, and they tend to use non-linguistic forms such as laughs and pauses to minimize possible intimidation. The main contributions of this study include: 1. Using CA theories to analyze authentic data of Chinese learners. 2. Enhancing our understanding of cross-cultural interaction in Chinese classes by sharing our observations and teaching experience. 3. Helping teachers to enhance students’ awareness of pragmatics and providing instruction on various language forms while also providing guided practice for language learners to communicate successfully.
Other Identifiers: GN0699800112
Appears in Collections:學位論文

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