Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://rportal.lib.ntnu.edu.tw:80/handle/20.500.12235/86550
Title: 華語網路感謝言語行為研究與教學應用—以美籍學生為例
A Research of the Internet Communication Speech Act of Thanking in Chinese and Pedagogical Applications -- A Case Study of American Students
Authors: 謝佳玲 博士
趙若妤
JO YU CHAO
Keywords: 感謝言語行為
華語教學
禮貌原則
語用失誤
跨文化網路溝通
gratitude expression speech act
Chinese teaching
politeness principle
pragmatic failure
cross-cultural internet communication
Issue Date: 2012
Abstract: 跨文化網路溝通日益頻繁,亦發展出異於傳統溝通模式的語用文化;然而,現有華語教材與教學對培養學生此種「跨文化溝通能力」仍不足。本文以網路感謝言語行為為例,試從比對華語母語者、英語母語者與華語學習者語料,分析美籍華語學習者網路致謝語用失誤,並提供兼顧語言教學與跨文化語用知能的教學範例,希冀增強華語學習者於跨文化網路溝通的交際能力。 本文以李麗娜(2004b)研究成果為基礎,並參考Leech(1983)的禮貌準則、曲衛國(1999)的「親近準則」與「關係準則」等,整理不同語境下華語網路致謝的常見句式與策略。本文研究方法為:先設定「性別差異」、「社會權勢」、「社會距離」等社會變項,再蒐集網路現成語料、取得問卷實驗語料與進行質性訪談,企圖從自然語料、量化數據與質化訪談三方面,分析華語母語者、英語母語者與華語學習者語言形式與文化認知互動情形,提出華語母語者網路致謝的語用模式,探討華語學習者學習難點與語用失誤原因,並提供相關教學建議。 本文實驗結果顯示:學習者母語文化負遷移、教材與教師教學誤導為學習者語用失誤主因。華人網路致謝時,對高位致謝仍偏好使用「道歉式」與多元輔助策略,顯示仍保有「重權」與「婉轉間接」的文化傳統;美籍華語學習者則因美式文化「平權」與「坦率直接」而出現迴避使用或無法理解特定語言形式與輔助策略等語用失誤。其次,三組在「性別差異」、「社會權勢」、「社會距離」變項中,僅「社會權勢」明顯影響策略選用:華語學習者對高位致謝語用失誤比例偏高。另外,由於華人網路致謝受網路文化與西化影響,總體而言偏好「直接感謝」,異於傳統的「間接感謝」,但學習者受教材、教師教學影響一概偏好「間接感謝」,且因教材設計缺失無法發展靈活應用多元致謝策略的能力。 教學應用部分,本文運用實驗成果設計教學內容,並輔以「記憶未來」與「行為演練」原則,透過「短劇觀察」、「文化討論」、「角色扮演」等活動落實教學理念,提昇學生跨文化網路交際之語用能力。
Cross-cultural network communication has become increasingly frequent and has also developed a different pragmatic culture from the traditional mode; however, existing Chinese language teaching materials and methods intended to develop students "cross-cultural communication competence" are still insufficient. This study focuses on the Chinese language Internet Thanks Speech Act and aims to investigate the similarities and differences between Chinese native speakers, English native speakers and American learners of Chinese by comparing a corpus of each. Furthermore, this study examines the factors that lead to pragmatic failures by American learners of Chinese. At the end of this study, the author provides a teaching plan based on the synthesis of language forms and language functions that is intended to improve learners’ communicative ability when expressing gratitude via the Internet in Chinese. This study utilizes the research framework created by Li (2004b), and takes into account the politeness principles proposed by Leech (1983) and Que (1999). The author collected and compared corpora through electronic questionnaires, the Taiwanese Bulletin Board System (BBS) and personal interviews of Chinese native speakers, English native speakers and American learners of Chinese. This study takes into account social factors like “gender”, “social power” and “social distance”, with the goals of: 1. Finding the common language forms and strategies that Chinese native speakers would use to express gratitude in varying situations via the Internet. 2. Understanding the difficulty and pragmatic failures of American learners of Chinese to express gratitude in Chinese. 3. Suggesting a teaching plan to improve this situation. The results of this study show that pragmatic negative transfer, pragmatic overgeneralization and teaching-induced errors are the main reasons for American learners of Chinese’ pragmatic failures. Chinese Internet users, whose culture is defined by being indirect and paying more attention to “social power “, still prefer using the "apology" method with multi-supporting strategies to express their gratitude to people who have higher social status. While American learners of Chinese, whose culture thinks highly of “equal rights” and “sincerity”, have an inability to understand, acquire or tend to avoid using some specific language forms and supporting strategies, which caused some pragmatic failures. This study also showed that in the three groups, of the variables "gender gap", "social power" and "social distance" , only "social power" significantly affected strategy selection: most American learners of Chinese had pragmatic failures in expressing gratitude to people who were of a higher social status. In addition, due to the Internet culture and Westernization impact, "direct" and "varied supplementary policies" have become the predominant choice among Chinese native speakers when expressing thanks online in Chinese. This is in stark contrast with the past, where the tradition of "indirectness" reigned supreme. Such a change reveals the rise of virtual society, which has contributed to the evolution of the human speech model. However, with the lack of up-to-date teaching materials and the old fashion concepts instructors teach, learners have little chance of developing cross-cultural network communication capabilities. This paper ends with a teaching plan based on the author’s research. By applying Walker’s (2001) two principles: “remembering the future” and “practice by playing”, the author proposes a teaching method that contains “skit observation”, “culture discussion” and “role-playing” to develop and improve learners’ pragmatic competence in a cross-cultural network communication.
URI: http://etds.lib.ntnu.edu.tw/cgi-bin/gs32/gsweb.cgi?o=dstdcdr&s=%22http://etds.lib.ntnu.edu.tw/cgi-bin/gs32/gsweb.cgi?o=dstdcdr&s=id=%22GN0698800189%22.&%22.id.&
http://rportal.lib.ntnu.edu.tw:80/handle/20.500.12235/86550
Other Identifiers: GN0698800189
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