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Title: 日籍學習者的華語學習焦慮研究
A Study of Japanese Students' Anxiety in Leaning Chinese
Authors: 曾金金
Keywords: 學習焦慮
Learning anxiety
Second language anxiety
Chinese classroom anxiety
Chinese as a Second Language
Japanese learners
Issue Date: 2012
Abstract: 學習焦慮在外語學習領域是一個廣為討論的議題,Krashen(1982)認為焦慮可能開啟學習者的情感過濾器,使其無法達到好的學習成效。外語學習焦慮研究也普遍認為焦慮有礙學習。然而目前針對華語學習焦慮的研究卻仍寥寥無幾。根據黃儀瑄(2007)的研究結果顯示,日籍華語學習者相較於其他外籍華語學習者,焦慮程度偏高,因此本研究針對日本東京學藝大學修習中文課的日籍學習者,採用問卷調查法配合質化訪談,調查日籍學生在學習過程中最容易感到焦慮的因素、並探討不同個體因素與焦慮因素之間的關聯,最後提出針對日籍學習者的華語教學建議。   研究結果顯示:一、「對公開發言的恐懼」是令日籍華語學習者感到最焦慮的因素。二、除了「對公開發言的恐懼」以外,內在因素(如:對中文能力的自信、對不確定事物的焦慮和對中文課的態度)引起的華語學習焦慮高於外在因素(如:媒介、對他人評價的看法和教師教學時所採取的方法和措施)。三、在個體因素差異上,整體而言男性學習者較女性學習者更容易感到焦慮;隨著學習時間越長,學習者的自我期待提高,在對中文課的態度、他人評價、公開發言和自信方面的焦慮程度亦隨之增高;若有目標語國家經驗,即曾經到過中國或台灣的學習者,其華語學習焦慮程度一致較低;不曾與外國人士接觸的日籍學習者在華語學習焦慮反應較明顯。最後,也發現日籍學習者在華語學習過程中的口說焦慮,與其民族文化中的「恥感文化」和「團體意識」有極大關連。  為了減低日籍學習者在華語學習過程中的焦慮,本研究也在第六章針對學習者性別、中文程度以及其相關經驗等個體差異、課堂互動方式、教學方法和內容,以及幫助學習者自我調整等面向提出教學建議。
Language learning anxiety is a widely-discussed topic. Many studies have identified anxiety as a main factor that induces an affective filter that blocks input the learner would otherwise use to continually attain greater language proficiency. However, few studies regarding learning anxiety have focused on the teaching of Chinese as a second language. The present study was therefore designed to investigate the factors related to language learning anxiety and the relationship between these factors and learners’ individual differences, as well as suggestions for instructors to lessen Japanese students’ anxiety in the Chinese language classroom. 209 students enrolled in Tokyo Gakugei University’s Chinese class in Japan were surveyed and 18 were interviewed to gain a better understanding of the anxiety involved in learning Chinese. This study identifies “the fear of speaking in public” as the factor that makes Japanese learners most anxious. Aside from “the fear of speaking in public,” internal factors, such as “confidence in one’s Chinese ability,” “tolerance for ambiguity” and “one’s attitude toward Chinese classes” are all sources of Chinese learning anxiety. These are relatively stronger influences when compared with external factors, which include “the learning medium,” “peer-evaluation anxiety,” or “the teacher’s instruction.” In terms of individual differences, male students experience greater stress than female students when learning Chinese. Individuals who have spent more hours learning Chinese are more likely to experience higher levels of anxiousness toward Chinese classes, peer-evaluation, fear of speaking in public and confidence in one’s Chinese ability. Those who have either traveled or lived in Chinese-speaking countries have shown a lower degree of anxiety. And learners who have never experienced cross-language or cultural interaction with foreigners have greater anxiety. Last but not least, Japanese learners’ speaking anxiety is closely related to the “shame culture” and “group orientation” in Japanese culture. In order to reduce Japanese students’ anxiety over learning Chinese, this research provides several concrete suggestions regarding students’ individual differences, including gender, language levels and related experiences, classroom interaction, teaching approaches and content, and helping learners self-adjust.
Other Identifiers: GN0698800098
Appears in Collections:學位論文

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