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Research of Korean Students’ Language Transfer of Chinese Characters’ Pronunciation and Meaning in Chinese Teaching Application
Chinese character recognition
pronunciation and meaning of Chinese character
To investigate the influence of Korean students’ cognitive foundation of Chinese character meaning and pronunciation on their ability to learn Chinese, this study is based on Heo Cheol’s (2010) 172 high-frequency Hanja, and selected Chinese and Korean homographic characters to design questionnaires, tests, and interviews. With this approach, the role of Korean students’ background knowledge of Hanja in language transfer for learning Chinese pronunciation and meaning was analyzed. A total of 32 subjects were given questionnaires inquiring about necessary background data, along with a test containing 40 high-frequency Chinese characters 30 vocabularies (Hanja-eo) used in Korea. The results indicate that 1. “Chinese Proficiency” and “Familiarity with Hanja” strongly influences the accuracy of Chinese character pronunciation and meaning; 2. “The correlation between Chinese characters and Korean hanja pronunciations” is directly related to reading accuracy. Additionally, the accuracy of reading characters with similar pronunciations is apparently higher than that of characters with divergent pronunciations; 3. The accuracy rates of semantic tests in sequence are homographic synonym> allo-graphic synonym> reverse synonym> homographic near-synonym=homograph. Most importantly, the relationship between the pronunciation and meaning of Chinese characters and Hanja clearly indicates an impact on the positive transfer and negative transfer in Chinese language learning for Korean students. According to the test analysis results and the subjects’ feedback, this study has drawn up teaching propositions and a teaching sequence from the starting points of “Language Divergence” and “Language Error” to foster positive transfer in Korean students’ Chinese character cognition while avoiding negative transfer. In the practical application of phonetics, when students encounter characters with similar pronunciations, they are reminded to try their best to guess the pronunciation indicated by the charater by comparing it with Hanja’s. Thereafter, they listen to the articulation of a native speaker, imitate his/her tongue position and shape of the mouth, and adjust the Hanja pronunciation according to the Chinese characters. As for the semantic teaching application, if the unit is the “Chinese character,” a series of related vocabularies are offered to the students to guess the meanings before making an explanation that will compare them with the Korean meanings. On the other hand, if the unit is “vocabulary,” the meaning, fixed usage, and grammatical functions are illustrated and distinguished. Eventually, when it comes to the teaching sequence of phonetics, characters pronounced with greater accuracy with similar pronunciations are taught prior to characters pronounced with less accuracy with divergent pronunciations. Regarding the teaching sequence of semantics, it begins with what the learners perform better; that is, homographic synonyms. This is followed by instruction for allo-graphic synonyms and contrary-order synonyms. Near-synonym and homograph will be taught last as they confuse learners most and differ more greatly in Chinese and Korean.
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