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Title: 韓國學生的漢字音義遷移研究與華語文教學應用
Research of Korean Students’ Language Transfer of Chinese Characters’ Pronunciation and Meaning in Chinese Teaching Application
Authors: 曾金金
Tseng, Chin-Chin
Hsu, Wei
Keywords: 漢字認知
Chinese character recognition
Sino-Korean word
pronunciation and meaning of Chinese character
language transfer
Issue Date: 2013
Abstract: 為探討韓國學生的漢字音、義認知基礎在其學習華語時的影響,本文以許喆(2010)所調查之韓語核心高頻漢字172字為研究範圍,選取華、韓同形漢字,設計問卷、測驗與訪談內容,以了解韓國學生的漢字詞背景在其學習華語字音、字義上的遷移現象。本研究共計32名受試者,參與背景資料的問卷填答與測驗,測驗內容包含念讀韓國常用漢字40字,以及選擇韓語的核心高頻漢字詞30詞。研究結果顯示:(一)背景資料裡的「華語程度」和「對韓國漢字的認識」兩個因素,與語音語義測驗正確率高度相關。(二)華韓漢字字音之間的關係,與華語語音念讀正確率呈顯著相關,且字音相近字的念讀正確率明顯優於字音不相近者。(三)語義測驗作答正確率依序為,同形同義詞>異形同義詞>逆序同義詞>同形近義詞=同形異義詞。綜合研究結果發現,華、韓漢字字音、字義之間的關係,確實會在韓國學生的華語表現上產生正、負遷移的影響。為發揮韓國學生漢字認知正遷移,同時避免負遷移影響,本文最後根據測驗的分析結果與受試者的問答回饋,從「語言差異」和「偏誤現象」出發,擬出字詞教學應用建議及教學排序。在實際的語音應用上,若遇到字音相近字時,提醒學生盡可能地先利用韓語的漢字發音先推敲華語的語音,再聆聽華語母語者的語音,並對照其舌位及口型,將華韓語音無差異的字音直接遷移,而有細微差異的字音就調整成發華語音的。而語義的應用方面,以「字」為單位時,先提供學生一系列的相關詞彙使其自行猜測華語詞義,再以韓語釋義之方式給予學生明確解釋;以「詞」為單位時,則視詞彙的義項、固定搭配用法與語法功能的不同,為學生說明並加以區辨。至於語音的教學排序為,念讀正確率較高的字音相近字先於正確率較低的字音不相近字;語義的教學排序,亦從學習者表現較好的同形同義詞著手,再次為異形同義詞、逆序同義詞,最後才是華韓語言差異較明顯,且學習者最容易混淆不清的同形近義詞和同形異義詞教學。
To investigate the influence of Korean students’ cognitive foundation of Chinese character meaning and pronunciation on their ability to learn Chinese, this study is based on Heo Cheol’s (2010) 172 high-frequency Hanja, and selected Chinese and Korean homographic characters to design questionnaires, tests, and interviews. With this approach, the role of Korean students’ background knowledge of Hanja in language transfer for learning Chinese pronunciation and meaning was analyzed. A total of 32 subjects were given questionnaires inquiring about necessary background data, along with a test containing 40 high-frequency Chinese characters 30 vocabularies (Hanja-eo) used in Korea. The results indicate that 1. “Chinese Proficiency” and “Familiarity with Hanja” strongly influences the accuracy of Chinese character pronunciation and meaning; 2. “The correlation between Chinese characters and Korean hanja pronunciations” is directly related to reading accuracy. Additionally, the accuracy of reading characters with similar pronunciations is apparently higher than that of characters with divergent pronunciations; 3. The accuracy rates of semantic tests in sequence are homographic synonym> allo-graphic synonym> reverse synonym> homographic near-synonym=homograph. Most importantly, the relationship between the pronunciation and meaning of Chinese characters and Hanja clearly indicates an impact on the positive transfer and negative transfer in Chinese language learning for Korean students. According to the test analysis results and the subjects’ feedback, this study has drawn up teaching propositions and a teaching sequence from the starting points of “Language Divergence” and “Language Error” to foster positive transfer in Korean students’ Chinese character cognition while avoiding negative transfer. In the practical application of phonetics, when students encounter characters with similar pronunciations, they are reminded to try their best to guess the pronunciation indicated by the charater by comparing it with Hanja’s. Thereafter, they listen to the articulation of a native speaker, imitate his/her tongue position and shape of the mouth, and adjust the Hanja pronunciation according to the Chinese characters. As for the semantic teaching application, if the unit is the “Chinese character,” a series of related vocabularies are offered to the students to guess the meanings before making an explanation that will compare them with the Korean meanings. On the other hand, if the unit is “vocabulary,” the meaning, fixed usage, and grammatical functions are illustrated and distinguished. Eventually, when it comes to the teaching sequence of phonetics, characters pronounced with greater accuracy with similar pronunciations are taught prior to characters pronounced with less accuracy with divergent pronunciations. Regarding the teaching sequence of semantics, it begins with what the learners perform better; that is, homographic synonyms. This is followed by instruction for allo-graphic synonyms and contrary-order synonyms. Near-synonym and homograph will be taught last as they confuse learners most and differ more greatly in Chinese and Korean.
Other Identifiers: GN0698800024
Appears in Collections:學位論文

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