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Title: 回應讚美之語用研究: 以台灣人、德國人及德國華語學習者爲例
A Pragmatic Analysis of Compliment Responses: A Case Study of Taiwanese, Germans and German Learners of Mandarin
Authors: 信世昌
Hsin, Shih-Chang
Hsieh, Chia-Ling
Keywords: 讚美回應策略
Compliment Response Strategies
German Learners of Mandarin
Pragmatic Transfer
Issue Date: 2012
Abstract: 讚美可視爲人與人溝通上的潤滑劑,適當且真心的讚美可以提升人際關係,不過要如何回應他人的讚美更是一門學問。影響回應讚美的因素,個人的文化背景往往扮演重要的角色。本研究將針對台灣人、德國人以及德國籍的華語學習者進行回應讚美的對比分析,除了找出兩組母語者回應讚美上的異同之處之外,同時研究華語學習者在回應策略上的偏好爲何。 本文以書面話語完成測驗 (Discourse Completion Test) 的問卷調查法爲語料搜集方式,主要分析讚美主題以及社會變項對於回應讚美的影響力。問卷分爲外表、財物、能力、個性四個讚美主題,並研究場所、自我評估和社會地位三個社會變項。筆者從搜集到的1250筆語料中歸納出16個回應讚美策略,並分爲「接受」、「修正」和「拒絕」三種主類策略。 研究結果顯示,台灣人與德國人皆傾向於「接受」回應策略,其次爲「修正」以及「拒絕」策略。儘管華語中「拒絕」被視爲常規化的回應策略,但本研究發現台灣人大多數已不採用這樣回應。不過,與德國人的回應相比台灣人還是比較傾向謙虛的回應。分析讚美主題對回應策略的影響發現,僅在針對能力爲讚美主題的情況下,呈現出兩組的差異,台灣偏向「修正」和德國人偏向「接受」策略。除此之外,社會變項對回應策略的選擇也顯出不可忽略的影響,其中自我評估以及社會地位的影響力比場所來得高。德國華語學習者結果顯示,他們反而以「修正」爲主要的回應策略,策略選擇上也比台灣人更謙虛,但還是會有語用遷移的現象。筆者從教材分析發現,德國漢學系使用的教材,大部分只教學生華語中該用「拒絕」策略回應讚美。如今時代變遷,台灣華語母語者也已大量「接受」他人的讚美,因此在教學應用上,筆者將根據本研究觀察到的結果提出教學建議,以幫助德國籍華語學習者學以致用,除了語言進步之外,也可提高語用能力。
Compliments can be seen as a communicative social lubricant, since sincere compliments can enhance interpersonal relationships. The speaker's cultural background often plays a significant role when it comes to what is considered the proper way of responding to a compliment. In this thesis, a comparison is made between the compliment response (CR) behavior of Taiwanese, Germans and German learners of Mandarin. Not only are the similarities and differences in compliment related verbal behavior between native speakers (NS) of Mandarin and German considered, but also the L2 behavior of German-speaking learners of Mandarin. The data for the current study was collected through the use of written Discourse Completion Tests (DCT). The contexts given in the questionnaire were designed for investigating the influence of four different compliment topics (appearance, possession, ability and character) and three social variables (setting, self-evaluation and social status) on participant compliment response. 16 CR-strategies were extracted out of a corpus of 1250 CRs. These 16 can be grouped into the three main strategies “acceptance”, “evasion” and “rejection”. The findings demonstrate that, all in all, both Taiwanese and German NSs opted for “acceptance” first, then “evasion” and lastly “rejection” (in that order). However, the frequency of “evasion” and “rejection” responses for the Taiwanese exceeded that of the Germans, indicating that Taiwanese responses were more modest, which can also be seen in their use of sub-strategies. The findings further show that compliment topics as well as the three social variables under examination do influence CRs in a significant way. As for L2 learner behavior, “evasion” was the number one choice, exceeding even the Taiwanese NSs in terms of modest responses. Although results from the learners do show a small amount of pragmatic transfer, most of their CR-strategy choices (mainly “evasion” and “rejection”) can be attributed to the instructions found in the Mandarin textbooks used in Germany. However, even Mandarin NSs tend to use “acceptance” strategies when responding to compliments nowadays. Additionally, based upon the results of this research, some suggestions are given for language teaching that are aimed at raising the pragmatic abilities and awareness of German learners of Mandarin.
Other Identifiers: GN0697800302
Appears in Collections:學位論文

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