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Title: 現代漢語道歉言語之語用策略及語言形式─以臺灣地區為例
Apologies of Mandarin in Taiwan: Pragmatic Strategies and Linguistic Structure
Authors: 陳俊光
Keywords: 道歉言語
pragmatic strategies
linguistic structure
speech act
Issue Date: 2011
Abstract: 日常生活中,人們經常會發生威脅他人面子的行為,需要使用道歉言語行為來維護雙方的關係。因此筆者欲以臺灣地區為主,蒐集漢語母語者在道歉語境下的語料,歸納道歉語用策略與語言形式,期望在漢語教學的層面上,為學習者提供相關語用知識,也為未來的語用教學設計提供參考。 本文以Trosborg(1995)的道歉策略(apology strategies)分類為主要研究架構,分析現代漢語道歉言語的語用策略。研究方法以言談篇章完成任務(discourse completion task)為主,輔以封閉式角色扮演(closed role-plays)及半結構式訪談(semi-structured interview)。研究結果顯示,漢語的道歉策略分為五大類「退出」、「迴避道歉」、「間接道歉」、「直接道歉」及「支持手段」,使用比例最高的是「直接道歉」;而五大類下又細分為八項道歉主策略,包含「拒絕道歉」、「減輕責任」、「承擔責任」、「解釋原因」、「表達歉意」、「關心聽者」、「提供保證」及「提供補償」,其中使用比例最高的策略依序為「表達歉意」、「承擔責任」和「提供補償」。 社會變項(social variables)同樣也可能影響說者的語用策略選用。學生與非學生在「承擔責任」的策略上具備顯著差異;兩性則是在「減輕責任」的策略上表現不同;而受話者的地位高低,則會影響說者在「拒絕道歉」、「減輕責任」及「表達歉意」的策略運用;冒犯情境則是受試者選用差異最大的變項,在所有的道歉主策略上,都具有顯著差異。 此外,在漢語的道歉語言形式上,本文由詞語及句式選用兩部分探討。詞語選用方面,可分為「降級語」、「升級語」及「支持措施」三大類,包含了「緩調詞」、「低調陳述詞」、「規避詞」、「禮貌標記」、「強化語」、「預備詞」、「填空詞」共七種語言形式;句式的表現則分布在「疑問句」及「條件句」上,「疑問句」涵蓋了「是非問句」、「特指問句」、「正反問句」與「選擇問句」四種問句。 最後,在教學應用上,筆者參考語用教學相關文獻及現行教材,配合本文的研究結果,為漢語學習者設計教學內容。
In everyday life, people may cause others to lose face. An apology speech act can repair the relationship between the interlocutors. The purpose of this study is to investigate the pragmatic strategies and linguistic structures of apologies of Mandarin in Taiwan, with the hope that it will help Chinese learners develop their pragmatic ability. This study is based on the framework of apology strategies proposed by Trosborg(1995). The primary research method used in the present study is discourse completion tasks, supplemented by closed role-plays and semi-structured interviews. Based on the collected data, apology strategies in Chinese can be divided into five categories: “opt out”, “evasive strategies”, “indirect apologies”, “direct apologies” and“remedial support”. “Direct apologies” are found to be the most frequently used strategy. These five categories can be further divided into eight main apology strategies: “accused does not take on responsibility”, “minimizing the degree of offense”, “acknowledgement of responsibility”, “explanation or account”, “expression of apology”, “expressing concern for hearer”, “promise of forbearance”, “offer of repair”. The results reveal that “acknowledgement of responsibility”, “expression of apology” and “offer of repair” are the most frequently used main apology strategies. Social variables are also taken into consideration. Students and non-students behave differently in “acknowledgement of responsibility”; males and females behave differently when “minimizing the degree of offense”. In addition, the addressee’s social status affects the performance of the “accused does not take on responsibility”, “minimizing the degree of offense” and “expression of apology” strategies. The type of offense is the most important variable in determining what apology strategy Chinese native speakers use; a great deal of variation is apparent in the use of the eight apology strategies. Furthermore, the linguistic structure of apologies is described from two perspectives: the choice of lexical items or phrases, and the use of sentence patterns. The lexical items observed include “downgraders”, “upgraders”, “supportive moves”; these include “downgraders”, “understaters”, “hedges”, “politeness markers”, “intensifiers”, “preparators” and “fillers”. The sentence patterns observed includes “interrogative sentences” and “conditional clauses”. Finally, the author provides a model lesson plan based on the findings of this study, literature reviews and teaching materials about pragmatics.
Other Identifiers: GN0697800223
Appears in Collections:學位論文

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