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Title: 初級華語教材行為文化研究─以問候語及讚美語語對為例
Behavioral Cultures in CFL Beginner Textbooks: Using Adjecency Pairs of Greetings and Compliments as References
Authors: 曾金金
Keywords: 初級華語教材
CFL beginner textbooks
material analysis
behavioral cultures
Issue Date: 2012
Abstract: Hammerly(1982)將文化劃分為成就文化、信息文化以及行為文化三類。而根據Yu(2009)調查,行為文化佔初級華語教材文化內容比重的83.3%,顯示行為文化在初級華語教學中的重要性。然而目前對於初級華語教材中的行為文化內容研究仍顯不足。有鑑於此,本研究採內容分析法針對中、台、美、法四地通行的六本初級華語教材為研究材料,以問候及讚美為行為文化代表範例,探討教材中問候語及讚美語語對之內容以及對話關係,旨在了解教材中的華人行為文化內涵及不同教材的特點。 本研究將教材中的問候語依其問候內容分為宣示、稱呼及情境三種,並依其出現形式分為單一型及複合型兩類。研究結果顯示,初級華語教材出現的單一型問候語與複合型問候語分別佔37.8%與62.2%。研究中也發現,教材中某些複合型問候因為將表示陌生的宣示問候語「你好」與表示關係熟悉之姓名暱稱及親屬稱呼結合使用,與華人關係取向中的親疏有別的互動模式相異,可能對外籍學習者的問候語習產生負面影響。 在讚美語部分,本研究依照讚美主題將華語教材的讚美語分為外貌、表現、個性和所有物四類,發現華語教材中的讚美語主要集中在「表現」主題,佔72%,但多數教材缺乏華語母語者最常使用的「外貌」主題。本文亦討論讚美的功能以及讚美回應策略的選用,發現在中國大陸及法國出版的教材傾向使用「拒絕」為讚美回應策略策略,唯有臺灣及美國出版的教材出現目前華語母語者較偏好使用的「接受」策略。 本文最後依據教材比較及歸納結果,提出有關行為文化教學的教材使用建議及編寫建議,以提供後續教材編輯者以及研究之參考。
Hammerly (1982) described culture in three categories or divisions: achievement culture, informational culture, and behavioral culture. Yu (2010) noted that behavioral culture weighs the heaviest at an average of 83.3% among the CFL Beginner textbooks. This shows that behavioral culture is an important component in teaching Chinese as a foreign language at the beginner level. However, there has been relatively little research conducted on behavioral culture in CFL beginner textbooks. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate Chinese behavioral culture in CFL textbooks and to address the similarities and differences among various materials. Six leading beginning-level Chinese language textbooks were used in this study, and adjacency pairs of greetings and compliments were taken as references. The present study identifies three types of greetings: declarative forms, address forms, and situational form. In addition, the greetings will be discussed in two categories according to their simplex or complex form. The results of this study show that simplex and complex forms accounted for 37.8% and 62.2% respectively of greeting forms in CFL beginner textbooks. On the other hand, we discover that some complex greetings didn’t reflect Chinese social interaction norms in the research, since they use both of the declarative greetings “Nihao”, which suggests alienation, and the use of nicknames and kin names, which suggest a sense of familiarity, at the same time. The usage in the textbooks would probably pose a negative effect on the CFL learning. As for the compliment research, the present study sorts the compliments in the materials into four types: appearance, performance, character, and possessions. The research shows that 85% of the compliments are on the topic of performance in the 6 CFL textbooks, whereas most of the textbooks include no compliment on the topic of appearance. Yet, that is the most frequent topic tended to use by the Chinese native speakers. The study also discusses the function of compliments and the compliment responses. The findings demonstrate that both the materials published in Mainland China and in France tend to make use of “rejection” strategies, while only the materials published in Taiwan and in the U.S introduced the “acceptance” strategies, which Chinese native speakers tend to adopt nowadays. Additionally, based upon the results of this research, some suggestions are given for language teaching and material compiling, as well for the reference of material design and research in the future.
Other Identifiers: GN0697800211
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