Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://rportal.lib.ntnu.edu.tw:80/handle/20.500.12235/86506
Title: 情態動詞肯定與否定的不對稱
The Positive-Negative Asymmetric Phenomenon in Modal Verbs of Mandarin
Authors: 謝佳玲
Hsieh, Chia-Ling
尹菀榕
Yin, Wan-Rung
Keywords: 情態動詞
肯定
否定
不對稱
華語教學
Modal verb
Positive
Negative
Asymmetric
Chinese teaching
Issue Date: 2013
Abstract: 本論文以語料庫為研究工具、語料分析為研究方法,討論漢語情態動詞肯定式與否定式的不對稱現象。研究範圍為肯否不對稱之情態動詞「能」、「可以」、「得」與「要」。 語料分析的結果,我們發現「可以」與「能」都可表示命題成立:「可以」消極表述障礙的突破;「能」積極表達動力的具備。不能直接否定的「可以」能傳遞不同語用推理功能;此外「可以」對自己立場的預設屬於動力情態、與他人的互動則屬道義情態。「要」的語義內容分為即將、意願及必須,語義核心為「行為實踐」與「未來時間」;肯定式分別有對應於不同情態類別的否定形。「得」屬道義情態,與「要」的道義情態共用相同的否定式。 研究成果具體可分為三個面向:對否定原則的補充、對情態主題思考的拓展以及對情態動詞肯定與否定不對稱現象之總結。在補充否定原則方面,研究針對否定的基本語意成分進行了補充,並發現語用的概念可以使否定量級理論更加完善。在重新思考情態的概念上,本論文尋找到動力情態能力的必然存在與否的理據,並確立了道義情態之否定與話語平面的連結。最後在現象總結方面,我們認為情態動詞肯否不對稱的原因至少源自於前提與量級的影響。前提的必要性等同最高量級無法否定,且情態動詞類別之間既有垂直階層亦有平行階層。此外情態類別才是影響如何選擇否定式的主因,因此對該現象的討論應該以否定為基礎。論文並藉此推導出漢語在表達肯定與否定時具有相異焦點之結論。 文末將研究成果應用於華語教學上,在檢討數種教材後做出結論。如教師須注意實際溝通有正反面的需求,勿偏廢於肯定或否定表達;其次考量情態動詞分散於不同課數,採螺旋式方法編纂教材及教學將最能有效的學習。
This study discusses the positive-negative asymmetry phenomenon in Chinese modal verbs. These modal verbs are "neng", "keyi", "dei" and "yao". In terms of modality, we find that deontic modality has a strong connection to discourse level. We also find that modal verbs in the same category do not necessarily form a vertical hierarchy. For example, “neng” and “keyi” describe “being capable of carrying out a topic” in a complementary way. This study also makes several revelations regarding negation and the asymmetry phenomenon. The negative form a modal verb chooses depends mainly on the specific modality the speaker wants to negate. The elements of modal verbs that can be negated include at least quantity and prerequisites. Prerequisites carry implicatures, such as modal verbs like “keyi,” which use a relatively simple form to express a quantized meaning. The basic elements of negation in a logistic real world are controllable and realistic. This definition explains why internal negation is necessary to negate mental activities. The polysemantic character of modal verbs allows vagueness, which the speaker can use to lessen their responsibility. It appears that positive forms in Chinese put emphasis on an existing fact; while to explain why a topic cannot exist is the purpose of negative forms.
URI: http://etds.lib.ntnu.edu.tw/cgi-bin/gs32/gsweb.cgi?o=dstdcdr&s=id=%22GN0697800118%22.&%22.id.&
http://rportal.lib.ntnu.edu.tw:80/handle/20.500.12235/86506
Other Identifiers: GN0697800118
Appears in Collections:學位論文

Files in This Item:
File SizeFormat 
n069780011801.pdf1.45 MBAdobe PDFView/Open


Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.