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Design of Beginner-Level Chinese Pronunciation Learning Materials for Adult Native Speakers of French
design of learning materials
|Abstract:||1995年法國只有五所大學設有中文系（徐時儀，1995），2004年十二所（白樂桑、張放，2005a），2011年開設華語專業的大學則增加到二十五所(Bellassen, 2011) ，顯示華語教育在法國的大幅成長以及需求。發音學習是語言學習的第一步，經分析後發現現行法文版教材對發音解釋的方式主要以借用華語以外語言語音模擬和文字描述發音方式為主。而借用其他語言語音模擬可能因學習者對該語言熟悉程度的不同、跨語言語音本質的差異以及各地口音及腔調的分別而產生誤導；文字敘述的方式亦將因文字解釋的模糊與專業語言學用語不易理解而造成學習障礙。 Anderson (1980) 提到技能經過大規模的練習方能自如使用，然而現行教材中練習題的比重有些仍不足，練習的方式也不夠多元化。由以上論述可見發音紙本教材的設計仍有相當大的改進空間。
本文發音部分的研究範圍涵蓋聲母、韻母和聲調以及漢語拼音拼寫規則。本研究歸納出針對法語母語者零起點發音紙本教材的設計重點主要為可理解性輸入 (comprehensible input) 與可理解性輸出 (comprehensible output) 兩大方面。首先，為使教材易於理解，本教材採法文為教材解說用語，並利用口腔剖面圖和插圖或圖表等圖象搭配文字描述講解發音方式。可理解性輸出(comprehensible output) 的設計則是透過文獻回顧以及需求分析了解學習者的學習難點以及習得順序，教材中安排符合循序漸進語言學習規律的教學順序及習題，每個單元皆有階段性統整、總練習的設置。
There were only five universities in France who had a department of Chinese in 1995（徐時儀，1995）. In 2004 there were 12（白樂桑、張放，2005a）, and in 2011 the number of universities increased to 25 (Bellassen, 2011). These numbers show the need for more Chinese education in France. Learning pronunciation is the first step of language learning. Analysis of existing textbooks written in French indicated two main ways of explaining pronunciation. First, through the use of languages other than Chinese as a means to simulate Chinese pronunciation. Second, by describing pronunciation methods through the use of words. However, using other languages to simulate Chinese pronunciation might mislead students who lack familiarity with those particular languages. Furthermore, discrepancy between two languages and the diversity of French accents can lead to misunderstanding. Describing pronunciation methods through words might also hinder the learning process due to the vagueness and obscurity of professional linguistic terms. Anderson (1980) mentioned that a skill becomes automatic after extensive practice, yet the current application of, and types of practice in existing learning materials is not sufficient. Thus, it is evident that there is still considerable room for improvement regarding pronunciation textbooks for native French speakers. The scope of this pronunciation study includes initials, finals, tones and the transcription rules of Hanyu Pinyin. This paper generalizes that comprehensible input and comprehensible output are two focal points of the design of beginner-level Chinese pronunciation learning materials for adult native speakers of French. In order to facilitate the comprehension, this learning material applies French as the compiling language, and incorporates the use of diagrams with texts description to explain pronunciation. Comprehensible output is then realized in two ways. First, by realizing student learning difficulties and acquisition order through both a literature review and needs analysis. And second, by properly arranging teaching order and exercises in a way that complies with the regular step-by-step language-learning patterns. In addition, each practice unit is designed to provide both staged and general practice. Through the pronunciation experiment and questionnaire survey, the learning materials designed in this study proved to be able to efficiently reduce the subjects' pronunciation errors.
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