Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://rportal.lib.ntnu.edu.tw:80/handle/20.500.12235/86501
Title: 拒絕行為之難點分析及教學應用-以澳大利亞籍學生為例
Learning difficulties of refusal strategies and pedagogical applications by Australia learners of Chinese
Authors: 謝佳玲
賴紋萱
Keywords: 拒絕言語行為
中介語
語用失誤
跨文化
華語教學
refusal speech act
interlanguage
pragmatic failures
cross-culture
Chinese teaching
Issue Date: 2012
Abstract: 拒絕言語行為具有威脅顏面、彼此磋商、順應語境等特質,其複雜的面貌使說話者需在傳達訊息與顧及顏面中尋求平衡。近來,不少西方中介語語用學研究以拒絕言語行為為題探討學習者之語用能力,然而針對華語學習者的拒絕中介語語用研究仍顯不足,有鑑於此,本文欲考察華語學習者在拒絕策略的選擇、順序、內容與華語母語者、英語母語者的相異之處,並歸納華語學習者使用拒絕言語行為之難點。 研究語料蒐集分為產出問卷與感知問卷。產出問卷的實驗組別有三:華語母語者、澳籍英語母語者、澳籍華語學習者。研究工具為封閉式角色扮演,由研究者與受試者進行單輪對話。感知問卷的研究工具有二,一為口述報告,收集上述三組受試者的訪談資料,二是合適測驗,使用線上問卷軟體蒐集一百位華語母語者對於華語學習者拒絕語語料之評分、理由與修正。 研究結果顯示,整體策略方面,華語學習者在選用、內容、順序方面皆偏向英語母語者,產生語用遷移。在社會變項影響下,華語學習者傾向維持固定的拒絕策略,較無法順應情境產出合宜拒絕。然而,在面對社會地位較高的請求者時,因課堂教學或學習經驗影響,學習者理解中華文化因而其策略選用較趨向華語母語者。此外,在合適測驗方面,華語母語者對於學習者在社會地位高與社會距離遠的拒絕表現較能接受,而在面對下位者與平位者、親近與普通關係者,華語母語者的評分並不高,表示學習者在這四種情境下容易產生語用失誤。本文歸納學習者常見語用失誤有兩方面,第一,社會語用失誤,包括直接程度過高、正式程度過低,自謙程度過與不及。第二,語用語言失誤,包括情態詞、規避詞以及句末虛詞的空缺或誤用。 最後,據上述語用失誤的研究結果,本文搭配兩階段語用教學:喚醒語用意識、觀察真實情境設計拒絕語之教學,亦依據不同程度的學習者調整教學內容。
Studies to date have concentrated on contrastive analysis of refusal speech acts; however, few studies have been done on interlanguage analysis, especially learners of Chinese. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate the performance of Australian learners of Chinese on refusal strategies and to conclude their pragmatic failures. The elicitation instrument used for data collection includes closed-role play and on line questionnaires. There are three gourps participated in first method including 10 native Chinese speakers, 10 Australian Englsih speakers, and 10 Australian learners of Chinese. 100 native Chinese speakers’ perception data were collected in second method to compare with the production data elicited from Chinese learners. The production data show that Chinese learners’ performances resemble Australian English speakers, in terms of frequency, content and order of semantic formulas. However, influenced by class teaching or culture understanding, Chinese learners’ responces are similar to the target-like norm when facing people in higher status. On the other hand, the perception data indicate that Chinese learners scored low on situations of status equal, low and those of intimates and accquaintience. These four situations lead to pragmatic failures often. Chinese learners’ pragmatic failures can be divided into two aspects. First, from the pragmalinguistics point of view, Chinese learners misuse modals, hedges and particles. Second, from the the sociopragmatics point of view, Chinese learners show the different levels of directness, formality and modesty from Chinese native speakers. According to the learner’s pragmatic failures, the study suggests a model teaching plan with two main instructional acitivity types: (1) raising student’s pragmatic awareness and (2) learners-as-researchers’ activies to facilitate learners’ pragmatic competence.
URI: http://etds.lib.ntnu.edu.tw/cgi-bin/gs32/gsweb.cgi?o=dstdcdr&s=%22http://etds.lib.ntnu.edu.tw/cgi-bin/gs32/gsweb.cgi?o=dstdcdr&s=id=%22GN0697800065%22.&%22.id.&
http://rportal.lib.ntnu.edu.tw:80/handle/20.500.12235/86501
Other Identifiers: GN0697800065
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