針對德國漢學系學生的語言與文化教學探究—以「龍」的成語及俗諺為例 Chinese Language and Culture Instructional Design for German Students in Chinese Department:Idioms and Proverbs with “Lóng”

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以Sapir&Whorf為首的「語言相對論」(Linguistic Relativity)學者認為語言不僅反映文化與行為,語言和思考模式還會互相影響,因為不同的語言造就了不同的思維模式,若想學習第二語言,不僅要學會語言本身(語言形式),還必須以第二語言的思考邏輯來理解並學習該語言,才能將第二語言學好。而各國的成語及俗諺充分反映了當地人的歷史、生活及思維,其豐富的內容來自於人們對於周遭人、事、物的觀察體認,因此成語教學不僅是語言的教學,更需要輔以文化和思維的導入,教學才能更完整。 由於成語有其特定結構與文化內涵,因此蔡智敏(2001)、張君松(2003)、黃麗貞(2013)等皆指出外籍學生即使到了高級還是常常誤用或不知如何使用,顯示成語教學不僅重要,更有它的意義和價值,現今也不乏學者討論專為外國學生設計的成語教材和成語典。由徐毓珮(2010)的研究顯示大部份華語教師普遍認為成語較適合中級以上程度的學生學習,但根據本文問卷調查顯示,不論是基礎級學習者還是初級學習者有75%的學生都對成語很感興趣,且又於教學後的成語測驗結果中發現,即使是基礎級學習者之答題正確率亦達70%,與初級學習者及中級學習者相較無異,可見成語的學習對於基礎級學習者而言也是可行的。 本研究採問卷與追蹤訪談調查,受試者為德國M大學漢學系學生共31人,此問卷分為三個部分,第一部分為成語學習背景調查、第二部分為心智圖實驗、第三部分則為聯想測驗。背景調查結果如下:由於該校所使用的教材僅以成語故事為主軸來介紹成語,缺乏成語的使用練習,容易造成學生偏重課文中其他生詞的學習,只把成語當成故事來聽,聽完後既不記得成語的語意也不會使用成語。心智圖實驗結果如下:德籍受試者的首位聯想有火52%、神話39%、巨大和危險32%、邪惡26%,可見德國龍形象是符合一般人印象中西方會噴火的惡龍形象的,與台籍受試者的皇帝57%、蛇23%、龍珠20%、海龍王13%形象相去甚遠,勢必造成學生認知觀念轉換上的一些困難。聯想測驗共二十題採中德對照方式,呈現各成語的單字意思,再請學生寫下他們所聯想該成語可能的意思,根據結果顯示:對學生而言,成語大致可分為以下三類,一、易聯想之成語;二、聯想易分歧之成語;三、不易聯想之成語。針對第一類易聯想之成語,可直接將該成語恢復為有明確主、謂語之句子。針對第二類聯想易分歧之成語,宜先告知學生該成語欲描述之對象(人、事或狀態),再扣緊謂語部分引導學生做正確的聯想。最後針對第三類不易聯想之成語,可先提醒學生該成語中的特定字義,再搭配圖片將該成語做完整的解釋,以幫助學生理解。
Scholars of linguistic relativity, developed and advocated by Sapir& Whorf, put forth that language is not merely a reflection of cultures and behaviors, rather language and thought are deeply interrelated and influences each other. Since different languages create different modes of thought, mastering a second language involves not only learning the language itself (linguistic form) but using the logic behind the second language to understand and learn the language. The idioms and general vernacular of a particular country reflect the local culture, lifestyle,and mode of thought. As the content of such phraseology is rich and derived from the speaker’s experience with environment—including the people, occurrences, and the material world therein—an idiom-based pedagogy cannot be purely linguistic, but must also include elements of culture and mode of thought. Chinese idioms are characterized by specific structure and cultural connotations, making them challenging for language learners. Cai Zhimin (2001), Zhang Junsong (2003), and Huang Lizhen (2013), among others, have shown that even advanced Chinese learners often cannot use, or misuse, Chinese idioms, highlighting not just the importance but also the meaning and value of teaching idioms. Indeed, many scholars are currently discussing and researching on materials and dictionaries specifically designed for teaching Chinese idioms to foreign students. In her research, Xu Yupei (2010) found that the majority of Chinese language educators consider idioms more suitable for students at intermediate-level or higher to learn. However, according to the questionnaires used in this study, 75% of students at the beginner and intermediate levels are already interested in learning idioms. Further, the results of post-teaching idiom test showed that even learners at the beginner level answered idiom-based questions correctly 70% of the time, a score that was on par with their intermediate and upper-intermediate counterparts. This suggests that studying idioms is viable even at beginner levels. The research was conducted by collecting questionnaires and in-depth and follow-up interviews. Our subjects were 31 students from the department of Sinology at M University in Germany. The questionnaire was comprised of three parts: First, a survey on the students’ idiom-learning background; second, mind mapping experiment; and third, association test. The survey found that materials for teaching idioms used by the department concentrated on introducing idioms through stories behind them and lacked the teaching and practice of how to apply such idioms, thus students focused more on learning other vocabulary in the texts rather than idioms and regarded idioms as a reference for stories. As a result, students neither remembered idiom meanings nor were they able to use them after listening to the stories. Mind mapping tests for the word ‘dragon’ produced the following initial associations and overall percentages thereof, respectively: fire 52%, myth 39%, gigantic or dangerous 32%, and evil 26%. Given the same test, Taiwanese subjects came up with these connotations: emperor 57%, snake 23%, dragon ball 20%, and Dragon King of the Seas 13%. It is evident from these statistics that the German concept of the same word is vastly different from that of Taiwanese subjects, indicating that for students whose cultures are different from that of the second-language they are learning, learning a word with culture-specific connotations requires changing one’s original cultural perception and concept about that word, which is bound to be challenging. In the association test, there are twenty 20 Chinese idioms presented in bilingual form, where each Chinese character of an idiom is paired with a German word explaining the character’s meaning. Students were asked to write down possible meanings or associations for each idiom based on the Chinese and German words. The results showed that, for students, the idioms can be divided into three categories: first, idioms whose meanings are easy to associate with; second, idioms whose associations by students are vary greatly among individuals; and third, idioms whose meanings are difficult to associate with. For the first category, such idioms can be easily understood by rephrasing it as a sentence with a clear subject and predicate. For the second, teachers must first provide students with background information on the idiom (such as the people, occurrence or situation of the story behind it) and then connect the background with the predicate in order to help student make the correct association. Lastly, to understand idioms whose meanings are difficult to associate with, teachers can first highlight specific characters and its definition of an idiom then provide visual aids to help students understand the idiom better.
第二語言成語教學, 語言與文化, 語言與思維, 心智圖, 德籍學習者, Idioms as second language pedagogy, language and culture, language and thought, mind mapping, German students learning Chinese