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Title: 現代漢語程度副詞「很」的探討
The Study of Adverb of Degree “hen” in Mandarin Chinese
Authors: 鄧守信
Keywords: 語義
verbs classification
Issue Date: 2011
Abstract:  本文從語義、句法與語用三個方面探討程度副詞「很」,依照語義是否起強化(intensifier)作用,把「很」劃分為帶有強化程度義的「很1」,和沒有強化程度義的「很2」。   以Zadeh (1965) 模糊集合(A fuzzy set)探討「很」的程度量級,又以「很」語法化的歷史過程:動詞 → 形容詞 → 副詞 →功能詞,進行語義分析。再從搭配意義,討論「很」與否定詞「不」的搭配,發現「很不」是高程度義的否定,語義是否定的。「不很」程度義的減弱,語義是肯定的。   根據Teng (1974) 提出的動詞三分(動作動詞action verb、狀態動詞state verb及變化動詞process verb)為架構,探討「很」與動詞及「很」與名詞的搭配。其中狀態動詞的次類,形容詞及關係動詞(包括是、有)跟「很」的特殊的句型,以及動詞後置成分(俗稱補語)「動得+很」的句構分析,並以動後程度語表示狀態、動作行為的強烈程度。   以高程度義較具代表性的程度副詞「好、太、更、超」,與「很」做個比較,分析它們之間的異同。其中「很」與「好」程度義較為接近,「更」用於比較或「比」字句,「太」除了高的程度義外,還包含了程度過量的過分義,「超」是新興的程度副詞。   最後根據外籍學生的學習偏誤,了解學習上的難點,研討教學的對策,並以結構為導向,實際應用在教學上,給學生「很」與動詞搭配的框架規則,幫助學生提昇程度副詞的正確使用能力。
This paper mainly explores the adverb “hěn” (很) in Mandarin Chinese from the aspects of semantics, syntactic and pragmatics respectively. In terms of the “emphasis” property, hěn1 contains the core meaning as “an intensifier or emphasis” whereas hěn2 does not. Furthermore, according to Zadeh’s(1965) “Fuzzy Set” Theory, we analyze the extent inference and grammaticalization of hěn, which is from verb to adjective, and then adverb to functional word. On the other hand, the collocation of hěn with negation bù(不) is also examined. Two most common collocation words hěnbù (很不) and bùhěn (不很) show a gradable distinction between them. The former has a highly negative sense while the latter means positive. Moreover, based on Teng’s (1974) verb classification framework, mainly action, state and process verbs, the collocation between hěn with verbs and nouns respectively are discussed. Then, two particular syntactic constructions, “hěn with stative verb” and “post-verbal component (also known as verb complement) dé (得) with hěn”, are specifically analyzed. In addition, the finer-grained distinctions among hěn, hǎo, tài, gèng, chāo (很、好、太、更、超) are further discussed. It turns out that hěn and hǎo are similar in extent and usage; gèng is more commonly used in comparative sentences; tài has the conflated meanings in high and extent senses, and chāo is a newly developed lexical word in Mandarin Chinese. Lastly, a teaching application on hěn with verbs is proposed based on the errors that L2 learners make. Through the investigation of hěn from different perspectives, we hope to help practioners and L2 learners teach and learn systematically.
Other Identifiers: GN0696800226
Appears in Collections:學位論文

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