Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://rportal.lib.ntnu.edu.tw:80/handle/20.500.12235/86423
Title: 現代漢語持續貌「著」與日語相應形式的對比分析與其教學應用
A Contrastive Analysis of the Durative Aspect Marker“Zhe”in Mandarin Chinese and Its Counterparts in Japanese with Pedagogical Applications
Authors: 陳俊光
Jyun-gwang Chen
清尾奈津子
SEIO NATSUKO
Keywords: 持續貌「著」
漢日對比
日語「ているteiru」
教學排序
Chinese
Japanese
Durative aspect marker“zhe”
Contrastive analysis
pedagogical grammar
“teiru”
Issue Date: 2009
Abstract: 「著」在現代漢語中屬於功能詞(function words),也是表示「持續」的時貌標記(aspect marker)。所謂的功能詞,不具實質概念語意,協助實詞發揮更大的功能,而漢語「著」必須藉由與動詞結合後才能顯示其核心意義「持續」,且漢語「著」搭配不同屬性的動詞,所能表示的語義即有所不同。本文除了探討漢語「著」本身的語義外,亦著重「著」與動詞之間密不可分的關係。 一般認為漢語「著」可以與日語「ているteiru」大致對應,但事實並非如此。「著」在不同的情況下,還可能有「てte」、「てあるtearu」、「ていたteita」、「ながらnagara」等其他的相應形式。本文為了釐清漢語及日語之間的對應關係,在第二章文獻探討中,分別從語義(句法)、篇章兩個層次來探討。本文首先對漢語「著」本身進行詳細審視,釐清其語法意義、與動詞的關係。其次比較「著」與「在」的異同,以及探討「著」的篇章功能。最後,對日語「ているteiru」進行探討,從「ているteiru」的成分開始,進而研究日語的動詞分類與日語時貌系統。 本文藉由筆者所建置的漢日平行語料庫,依照第三章所建立的討論架構,仔細分析漢語「著」和日語「ているteiru」在實際語料中如何呈現其對應關係,並透過問卷調查的方式,觀察日籍漢語學習者可能的學習難點。 本文透過漢日語的對比分析與討論後,歸納漢語「著」與日語「ているteiru」之間無法畫上等號的三個主要原因,分別為(一)、語序的差異。漢語是SVO語序、日語是SOV語序,在結構上「Verb著」與「Verb+teiru」出現的位置不同,導致兩者起著不同的作用。(二)、語言類型上有不相似之處。漢語是孤立型、而日語是黏著型,在時間軸上表示「持續」概念時,採用的方式也有所不同。漢語表示過去式可能需要時間詞或其他成分的支援,但日語依賴於「Verb+teiru」本身的形式變化,故日語自然需要多種形式。(三)、漢語「著」核心篇章功能為「後景」,但日語動詞「ているteiru」形式卻不能充當「後景」,只能結合主要動詞表示「前景」。日語動詞顯示「後景」之義,則必須以其他動詞形式來呈現。 本文最後嘗試將研究成果應用於華語教學中,針對日籍漢語學習者進行「著」的教學時,建議適當的教學順序,期望得到最佳教學效果。
Zhe in modern Mandarin is both a function word and a durative aspect marker. Function words are not semantically significant on their own, but must work in conjunction with a content word, such as a noun or a verb, in order to bring out their meaning. The durative aspect marker zhe in the present study must be collocated with a verb for its semantic meaning to be revealed. The semantic properties of the resulting meaning differ from those of the verb when it appears by itself. This thesis investigates the semantic meanings of zhe and its relationship to the verbs with which it collocates. It is generally thought that Mandarin zhe corresponds to Japanese ているteiru. However, it turns out that this is not the case. Depending upon the context, Japanese てte, てあるtearu, ていたteita and ながらnagara can also correspond to Mandarin zhe. The relationship between zhe and these correspondences in Japanese are explored in depth in this thesis. First, the functions of zhe are discussed from the two distinct planes of syntax and discourse, which is followed by a discussion of zhe and its relation to collocating verbs. Next, Mandarin zhe and zai are contrasted and compared. Lastly, ているteiru is used to discuss Japanese verb types as well as the Japanese aspect system. Based on the analysis framework presented in Chapter 3, the correspondences between Mandarin zhe and Japaneseているteiru are carefully studied as they occur in a natural linguistic corpus and possible learning difficulties for Japanese-speaking learners of Chinese are investigated by way of examining the results of a questionnaire survey. The results of this study show that Mandarin zhe does not correspond exactly to Japanese ているteiru, where the main differences are as follows: 1. Word order: Mandarin Chinese word order is SVO, while that of Japanese is SOV. In addition to differences in acceptable locations for Verb + zhe and Verb+teiru to appear in a sentence, the Mandarin Verb + zhe construction functions differently than the Verb + teiru construction in Japanese. 2. Typology: Mandarin is an isolating language while Japanese is an agglutinating language. Additionally, Duration is expressed differently by the two languages. Time words or other elements might be needed to express the past tense in Mandarin. Japanese, however, relies on the Verb + reiru construction. 3. Discourse function: the core role played by Mandarin zhe is that of “background”. However, this is a role that Japanese teiru cannot take on. Japanese teiru can only be collocated with the main verb of a sentence and play the role of “foreground”. Lastly, some suggestions and recommendations are made regarding how to apply the results of this study to the teaching of Mandarin zhe to Japanese-speaking learners of Mandarin.
URI: http://etds.lib.ntnu.edu.tw/cgi-bin/gs32/gsweb.cgi?o=dstdcdr&s=%22http://etds.lib.ntnu.edu.tw/cgi-bin/gs32/gsweb.cgi?o=dstdcdr&s=id=%22GN0694240343%22.&%22.id.&
http://rportal.lib.ntnu.edu.tw:80/handle/20.500.12235/86423
Other Identifiers: GN0694240343
Appears in Collections:學位論文

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