Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://rportal.lib.ntnu.edu.tw:80/handle/20.500.12235/86415
Title: 由近義詞「認識」、「知道」語內和語際對比 看日、泰中、高級學習者母語遷移現象
An intralingual and interlingual contrastive analysis of Mandarin near synonyms renshi and zhidao—First language transfer in Thai and Japanese intermediate and advanced learners of Mandarin
Authors: 曾金金
Tseng. Chin-Chin
丁國雲
Ting, Kuo-Yun
Keywords: 近義詞
第二語言習得
母語遷移
跨語言對比
near synonym
second language acquisition
first language transfer
contrastive analysis
Issue Date: 2009
Abstract: 本研究旨在根據中介語理論,探討母語遷移對習得近義詞「認識」與「知道」的影響,以期日後可運用於對外漢語教學上,減少以漢語為外語的學習者在學習及運用近義詞時遇到的困難。研究對象為日本與泰國中級組和高級組各30位外籍生,共120位外籍生進行跨語言對比。主要的研究方法為問卷調查法,並以實際訪談方式以補問卷之不足。 研究結果顯示:母語與標的語詞彙分化的程度不同,表現在近義詞習得使用上的差異也不同。漢語「認識」和「知道」對應於泰語為「รู้จัก (roo-jak)」(認識)和「รู้ (roo)」(知道),漢、泰兩者為較近似的語言,因此以泰語為母語之受試者偏誤率普遍較低。而日語學習者因其母語與漢語「認識」與「知道」在其對應領域之詞彙有著不同的詞彙精密程度,日語「認識」和「知道」皆以「知る(shi ru)」(原型)表示,這種差異令學習者在學習時產生了理解上的障礙,受到母語干擾的影響,故其偏誤率較高。此研究與Prator(1967)提出的難度等級相符合,即母語中的某個規則或結構,在標的語中分化成兩個或兩個以上的規則或結構時,難度等級較高。 其次,隨著學習的進展,高級程度的學習者其母語逐漸被第二語言所取代,進而接近或達到第二語言的水平。因此,高級程度的學習者對「認識」與「知道」的正確率較中級程度者為高。此一實驗結果也驗證了不少學者的觀點,如Taylor(1975)和 Brown(1987)。這些學者指出,母語干擾現象主要出現在第二語言學習的早期階段。此外,中級程度的學習者偏誤率較高,符合了Kellerman(1983)提出的U型理論,即到了中級階段學習者的偏誤率最高,然而隨著第二語言能力的再度提升,偏誤的標的語形式便逐漸被正確的標的語形式所取代。 教學應用上,筆者以『實用視聽華語』一書作為教案設計之依據,設計有關近義詞「認識」與「知道」之教學教案。透過教學流程的說明,進而提出教學建議,並於實際課堂中演練,確認教學成效。
This study uses the theory of interlanguage (IL) to examine the effects of first language transfer on the acquisition of the Mandarin near synonyms renshi and zhidao. The results of this study may be applied to teaching Chinese as a second language, reducing the difficulties students encounter when learning and using near synonyms. The methodology comprises questionnaires supplemented by interviews. Contrastive analysis is performed with data gathered from 120 study subjects divided into four groups of foreign students: 30 intermediate-level native Thai speakers, 30 advanced-level Thai native speakers, 30 intermediate-level native Japanese speakers, and 30 advanced-level native Japanese speakers. Results of the study demonstrate that the extent of lexical divergence is different in the first language and the target language. This implies that there are differences in how native speakers of Thai and Japanese acquire and use near synonyms. The Mandarin equivalents of renshi and zhidao in Thai are รู้จัก (roo-jak) and รู้ (roo) respectively. Mandarin and Thai are relatively similar languages, thus native Thai speakers in the study committed fewer errors. Japanese, however, has greater lexical sophistication with respect to renshi and zhidao in Mandarin—the verb知る (shi ru) encompasses the functions of both near synonyms. Native speakers of Japanese therefore had difficulty understanding the rules for using renshi and zhidao when learning Mandarin and committed more errors. This study uses hierarchies of difficulty as proposed by Prator (1967), which states that when the rules or structure of the learner’s first language diverge into two or more rules or structures in the target language, the learner encounters greater difficulty. Advanced-level learners experienced less interference from their first language and demonstrated higher levels of proficiency in the target language. In addition, learners in the advanced groups committed fewer negative transfer errors than the intermediate groups when using renshi and zhidao, confirming the views of scholars such as Taylor (1975) and Brown (1987) who hold that interference from the first language appears primarily in the early stages of second language acquisition. The error rate is higher in the intermediate groups, which supports the U-Shaped Development Theory proposed by Kellerman (1983). The error rate is highest when learners reach the intermediate level. Learners commit fewer errors as they gain greater competence in the target language and show more positive transfer. The textbook Practical Audio-Visual Chinese was used in designing teaching materials for the near synonyms renshi and zhidao. The teaching process is discussed and suggestions are provided. The effectiveness of the lesson is analyzed based on actual class drills.
URI: http://etds.lib.ntnu.edu.tw/cgi-bin/gs32/gsweb.cgi?o=dstdcdr&s=%22http://etds.lib.ntnu.edu.tw/cgi-bin/gs32/gsweb.cgi?o=dstdcdr&s=id=%22GN0694240197%22.&%22.id.&
http://rportal.lib.ntnu.edu.tw:80/handle/20.500.12235/86415
Other Identifiers: GN0694240197
Appears in Collections:學位論文

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