Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://rportal.lib.ntnu.edu.tw:80/handle/20.500.12235/86414
Title: 漢語副詞「卻」與「倒」之語義、篇章、語 用對比及其教學初探
A Semantic, Discourse, and Pragmatic Comparison of the Mandarin Adverbs Que and Dao with Pedagogical Application
Authors: 陳俊光
Chen, Jyun-gwang
林慧敏
Lin, Hui-min
Keywords: 「卻」
「倒」
核心語義
隱含
轄域
話輪
Que (卻)
Dao (倒)
Core Meaning
Implicature
Scope
Turn-taking
Issue Date: 2009
Abstract: 「卻」和「倒」這組近義副詞,由於意思和用法相近,使得外籍學習者常常難以掌握。本研究之主要目的,以語義、篇章和語用等層次,對「卻」和「倒」進行功能性的對比,試圖找出兩者的相異之處。並將多層面分析的成果運用在教學實踐上,以減少學習者學習的困難度。 語義層面探索「卻」、「倒」一個字具有多項意義,兩者的多重用法是由同一個抽象的核心意義而來。「卻」、「倒」產生多義的現象,是因為語境所造成的。「卻」、「倒」最大的分野,在於「倒」所連接的前項,在話語中可以被省略,「倒」具有連接前項和後項的隱含,可以引導聽話者感知前項的存在。而「卻」的存在則必須仰賴上下文具足的語言環境。 在篇章層面,「卻」、「倒」所影響的轄域(scope)不同,「卻」的銜接範圍停留在句群的層次,尚未進入較大的篇章範圍。而「倒」的銜接範圍較寬,具有「承上啟下」的篇章功能,其「轉承」的特質預示了「話題/話輪狀態改變」,形成了篇章的「段落標記」。會話中的「倒」可引出新話題或預示話題轉換,繼續下一個話題,或推進相關話題,也可能表示話題的結束,隨著在話輪中位置(開始、中間和結束處)的不同相應產生細微不同的功能。 在語用層面,「卻」、「倒」的本質並不盡相同,「倒」可以弱化說話者的正負語氣,進而產生了婉轉的語用義,而「卻」則無此功能。從語氣類型著手,討論「卻」、「倒」可否和陳述句、祈使句及疑問句搭配使用,進而達到不同的語用效果。 最後檢視華語教材,進而對教材編寫提出建議,以期日後作為教材編寫的參考。教學應用上,本文結合多層面的分析成果,以研究得出的結果為依據,設計教學簡案,透過教學流程的說明,提出教學建議。
Que (卻) and Dao (倒), are adverbs that possess similar meanings. Since they are similar in both meaning and usage, foreign students often have difficulty fully mastering them. The main aim of this research is to compare these two adverbs based on a functional analysis of dissimilarity with respect to semantics, pragmatics, and textual aspects. The results of this analysis will be applied to pedagogical practice in order to help minimize difficulties experienced by students. With respect to semantic meaning, Que (卻) and Dao (倒) as individual characters possess a variety of connotations that actually derive from one abstract core meaning; this variety of meaning is dependent upon context. One main point of demarcation between Que (卻) and Dao (倒) is that in a section of discourse the antecedent linked to the latter may be omitted. This is because Dao (倒) possesses antecedent-consequent linking implicature; this allows the listener to sense the existence of an antecedent without the explicit existence of one within the discourse. Conversely, when Que (卻) is used it must depend upon clear, complete, and explicit context of situation within the linguistic text in order to be understood. From the perspective of textual comparison, Que (卻) and Dao (倒) exhibit different scopes of influence. Que (卻) is only able to exert its influence at the complex-sentence level but not at the larger level of discourse. Dao (倒), on the other hand, functions within a much broader scope; it is able to function at the textual level to either continue or promote further discourse. Dao (倒) has the distinguishing characteristic of functioning to indicate changes in both topic and/or turn-taking conditions, as well as forming discourse section markers. Used in conversation, Dao (倒) is able to indicate a change in topic, bring forth a new topic, urge forward a related topic, or even indicate the completion of a given topic of conversation. Depending on the position of the adverb within the discourse (beginning, middle, or end), there will be corresponding subtle differences in its function. At the pragmatic level, the nature of these two adverbs is again not entirely similar. Dao (倒) can function to lessen the positive/negative mood of the speaker’s utterances, thus creating euphemistic pragmatic meaning, while Que (卻) is unable to carry out this particular function. Based on the modal aspect, the present research discusses possible dissimilar pragmatic results that may arise from the use of Que (卻) and Dao (倒) in conjunction with declarative, imperative, or interrogative sentences. Finally, based on a survey of pertinent Mandarin-language pedagogic material, this study provides recommendations that may act as a reference base for the compilation of future pedagogic materials. Based on the combined results of the multi-tiered analysis carried out in this research, a simple lesson plan has been designed and, by way of an explanation of the teaching process, recommendations related to pedagogy have been provided
URI: http://etds.lib.ntnu.edu.tw/cgi-bin/gs32/gsweb.cgi?o=dstdcdr&s=%22http://etds.lib.ntnu.edu.tw/cgi-bin/gs32/gsweb.cgi?o=dstdcdr&s=id=%22GN0694240185%22.&%22.id.&
http://rportal.lib.ntnu.edu.tw:80/handle/20.500.12235/86414
Other Identifiers: GN0694240185
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