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Title: 漢語「好」的語義、篇章、語用分析及教學應用
A Semantic, Discourse, Pragmatic Analysis of the Chinese Lexeme Hao with Pedagogical Applications
Authors: 陳俊光
Chen Jyun-gwang
Liu Hsin-I
Keywords: 「好」
Hao (好)
meaning extension
meaning conversion
the hao construction
pseudo-discourse markers
the reduplicate form of hao
Issue Date: 2009
Abstract: 「好」一個字包含多種語義,《現代漢語八百詞》列出十種不同的語義,語義複雜且具多種功能。因此,本論文根據Halliday(1985,1994,2004)的三大語言純理功能,包括概念功能、篇章功能與人際功能為架構進行「好」的語義、篇章和語用功能分析。 在Halliday的架構之下,主要為語義、篇章和語用等層次,藉由分析「好」的句法分佈及歷時語義來輔助釐清「好」各義項之間的關係。釐清的過程中,將各個「好」安置於不同的層次,即從概念層次出發,銜接至篇章和人際互動層次,將「好」在此架構中有一整體的呈現。 篇章功能層次,本文以會話言談口語語料來分析「好」的話語功能,從「好」在複句內銜接功能出發,至「好」在會話結構中,表示「預示話題/話輪狀態改變」的「段落標記」,此與「好」在概念層次中表「完成」具「變化/改變」性質相關聯。會話中的「好」可引出新話題或預示話題轉換,繼續下一個話題,或推進相關話題,也可能表示話題的結束,隨著在話輪中位置(開始、中間和結束處)的不同相應產生細微不同的功能。 人際互動功能層次,當「好」進入了人際互動層次時,其依語境的不同而產生不同的情態,「好」所承載的不是命題意義,而是為話語提供可理解的信息,即「話義」。本文根據Austin(1962)的言語行為理論和Searle(1975)的間接言語行為理論和Leech(1983)的禮貌原則來探討「好」的人際互動功能,包括「宣告或重新宣示目前說話的主權」、「應答功能」、「應允、接受、贊同、讓步」、「表反話」和「央求」等,此等功能的核心在於尋求禮貌原則中的「一致原則」,此為「好」在人際互動層面的核心參數,隨著不同語境,產生不同的語用功能。此外,並探討「好」句式與間接言語行為之間的關係。 此外,本文嘗試以篇章和語用角度分別探究「好」重疊式及狀態動詞重疊AA式,篇章層面透過對比焦點、語用層面透過「主觀量」與「預期值」來重新審視朱德熙認為狀態動詞重疊式在不同句法位置產生程度增強或減弱此一語言現象。最後,本文結合多層面的分析成果,提出相關之教學建議。
This study focuses on the different aspects of hao (好) including a semantic, pragmatic and discourse analysis. First, it investigates the semantic and syntactical features of the lexeme hao in Chinese as well as its part of speech. Hao is a complicated lexeme with multiple meanings. XianDai HanYu BaBaiCi (現代漢語八百詞) lists ten usages of hao, including as a stative verb, an adverb and an auxiliary verb. Using Halliday’s metafunctions (1985,1994,2004) as framework, this study aims to move beyond the traditional focus of semantic description and delve into comprehensive research, involving a semantic, pragmatic and discourse analysis of hao. Halliday’s metafunctions are arranged by ideational, interpersonal and textual functions, which correspond to the semantic, pragmatic and discourse aspects in this research. Hao’s (好) various meanings are clarified finally by exploration of its fundamental syntax distribution, diachronic semantics as well as its discourse and pragmatic functions. After delving into these aspects, the various meanings of hao are categorized into different levels, starting with its ideational functions, and working toward its textual and interpersonal functions. Additionally, this paper aims to explore the discourse features of hao (好) in terms of cohesion, coherence and information structure. In complex sentences hao acts as a function word, but in a conversational structure it changes into a “section marker.” As section marker, it indicates the status of the topic or change in topic. In other words, not only can hao can lead to a new topic, subject or to related topics, but it can also indicate the end of the topic. Hao takes on one of its corresponding functions according to its placement (at the beginning, middle or end) in the conversation structure. On the interpersonal level, the pragmatic functions of hao (好) are differentiated by the context in which it appears. When hao is not carrying its original meaning, but is rather marking information as understood by the listener, we speak of its “conversational meaning.” In light of Austin’s speech act (1962), Searle’s indirect speech act (1975), and Leech’s politeness principle (1983), we can see that the core interpersonal function of hao is to seek the “Agreement Maxim,” which provides the fundamental core that connects the various parameters in different contexts. In addition, we discuss the relationship between the hao structure and the indirect speech act. Next, the study examines the reduplicate form of hao (好) from the perspective of contrastive focus and offers an alternative viewpoint to traditional arguments which state that the reduplicate form of a stative verb can vary in degree when placed at different positions in a sentence. Lastly, based upon results of the multi-level linguistic analysis presented in this paper, some suggestions are offered for improving Chinese language pedagogy.
Other Identifiers: GN0694240161
Appears in Collections:學位論文

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