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Title: 「在」之語料庫分析及其教學語法
Corpus analysis of ZAI and its pedagogical grammar
Authors: 曾金金
Yu-hui Hong
learner corpus
error analysis
pedagogical grammar
pedagogical sequence
Issue Date: 2008
Abstract: 「在」為高頻詞且為現代漢語的基礎語法點之一,由此可見正確使用「在」之重要性。然而,在相關研究中顯示,中、高級程度的學習者亦難避免地出現「在」的偏誤。因此,本論文考察英語為母語的華語學習者對於現代漢語「在」的使用情形與偏誤現象,並針對這些學習者的特色,提出「在」之教學內容原則與教學排序。 「在」為兼類詞,釐清「在」的詞類可作為編寫教學語法內容之依據。依結構與詞類特性分析,「在」之詞類包含動詞、介詞及進行態標記三類。本研究依據其詞類,將「在」分為動詞「在1」、介詞「在2」以及進行態標記「在3」。此外,以教學為考量,本研究依結構及語義的複雜度,再將介詞「在」分為兩類分析:一類為不與方位詞等成分搭配為框式結構的「在」,另一類為與方位詞等成分搭配形成框式結構的「在」。前者之結構較單純、語義較具體,學習難度較低,後者之結構較複雜、語義較抽象,學習難度相對較高。 教學語法應以語料庫分析為基礎,因為語料庫研究能決定教學內容、教學排序以及語法點教學比重。因此,本研究利用曾金金(2005, 2006)與鄧守信(2005)建制的語料庫為基礎,加上自行搜集的語料進行語料庫分析,研究結果顯示各類「在」之總偏誤率為11.65%,各類「在」之偏誤率由高至低為「在2」〉「在3」〉「在1」,學習者母語遷移是造成偏誤的主要原因,其次則為目標語規則的過度泛化,分別佔全部偏誤的83.47%及6.85%。 本研究基於以上討論與Teng (2004) 的教學語法總則,建構出「在」的教學語法內容原則及排序,並認為各類「在」的教學排序應為:「在1」→「在3」→「在2」。最後,亦以此成果檢驗教材中「在」的語法點內容描述及編排是否恰當。本論文結合語料庫分析及教學語法兩方面的探討,以有助於提升教學效益為盼。
ZAI is a high-frequency word and a basic grammar point in Modern Chinese. In this regard, to use ZAI correctly is certainly important for learners; however, previous studies show that intermediate or advanced learners inevitably make errors of ZAI. Taking into account of all these factors, the present study aims to investigate English-background learner’s use of ZAI and to provide its grammar rules and pedagogical sequence. ZAI is also a multi-category word. The categorization of ZAI is incorporated into the framework of pedagogical grammar. In terms of its structures and syntactical functions, this paper argues that ZAI can be categorized into ZAI 1 the verb, ZAI 2 the preposition, and ZAI 3 the progressive aspect marker. Additionally, in view of pedagogy, this study further categorizes prepositional ZAI into two groups: one does not co-occur with localizers or other elements, and the other does. The former is simpler in form and more concrete in meaning, thus easier for learners. On the contrary, the latter is more complex in form and more abstract in meaning, therefore more difficult for learners. The pedagogical design of ZAI is required to be based upon results of corpus analysis. The findings of corpus analysis may affect pedagogical design, including the instructional content, sequence and focus. Hence, this study uses the corpora by Tseng (2005, 2006), Teng (2005), and the author. The results indicate that ZAI achieves an error rate of 11.65%. According to the error rates for each ZAI, the sequence from high to low is ZAI2〉 ZAI3〉ZAI1. These errors may be the consequences of their first language transfer and the over-generalization of grammatical rules in Chinese, which account for 83.47% and 6.85% of the error rates separately. Based on the analyses above and the guidelines by Teng (2004), this study constructs the pedagogical grammar of ZAIs and proposes that the pedagogical sequence of ZAIs for English background learners is ZAI1→ZAI3→ ZAI2. Finally, the findings of this study are used to examine the content and arrangement of ZAIs in textbooks. This paper seeks to make teaching and learning more effective.
Other Identifiers: GN0694240018
Appears in Collections:學位論文

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