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An Instructional Design for CSL Intermediate Conversation Course Based on the Performed Culture Approach
teaching Chinese as a second language
|Abstract:||在現今外語教學的領域中，語言和文化密不可分的概念已受到普遍重視，美國外語教學學會於1999年公布外語教學的五大教學目標：溝通、文化、連結、比較、社群。其中「文化」一項的教學目標期許學生能展現對所學習的文化觀點或文化產物與文化實踐之間關係的理解。在這樣的教學目標下，學習者學習外語的目的不再只是說出正確詞彙或使用正確語法，更需要養成目標文化的文化能力。然而，第二外語教學界對語言課程中如何妥善引入文化教學仍無共識，現今語言課程與所謂「文化課程」仍處於清楚切分的狀態，以華語教學為例，一般華語中心開設之文化課程，多以教授成就文化或民俗技藝為主，最難教與學的交際文化或行為文化則鮮少有系統化教學。2000年時，學者Galal L. R. Walker根據其多年中文教學經驗，提出了「體驗文化」（“Performed Culture”）教學觀，主張改變學習觀念，將文化學習作為語言學習的核心，以情境化的會話演練及學生表現作為主要教學活動，以期培養學習者文化能力，在目標語文化中能言行得體。
In the discipline of foreign language teaching (FLT), the fact that language and culture are closely related has become prominent. In 1999, American Council on Teaching Foreign Language (ACTFL) designated the standards for FLT as five Cs: Communication, Culture, Connection, Comparison and Community. In terms of their correlation with culture, foreign language learners are expected to demonstrate the knowledge of the relationship between the practices and perspectives of the culture studied. Put differently, in addition to the mastering vocabulary and grammar learners also have to develop a cultural competence regarding the target culture. However, there is no agreement as to how to introduce the dimension of culture into the second language teaching courses. In fact, language curriculum and culture curriculum are still diametrically opposed. Teaching Chinese serves as one of the best illustration. The courses offered by most language centers are structured mainly around achievement culture and folk art, whereas the teaching and learning of communicative culture and of behavioral culture mostly remain unsystematic and problematic. In 2000, based upon his experiences in teaching Chinese, Galal L. R. Walker brought forth the approach of “Performed Culture.” With this approach, he argued for the transformation of learners’ awareness of what learning a foreign language suggested and treated learning culture as the core of language learning: situated dialogue performance and learners’ performance play the role of the chief teaching activity, aiming at the constitution of the cultural competence of learners and their appropriate speaking and acting in the target culture. This research hinges upon the correlation between Chinese learners of intermediate level in Taiwan and teaching conversation. In light of Performed Culture, the contribution will be an instructional design and an applicable teaching model for the courses on teaching conversation in Chinese language centers in Taiwan, so as to immerse culture in language teaching. The research procedure consisted of the literature review of Performed Culture and related teaching activities, the designing of the preliminary teaching model, pilot study and formal teaching implement constructed along the modified pilot study. Extending from the results of teaching implement, this thesis has the following three suggestions. Firstly, the teaching activity takes a tripartite and procedural mode: understanding the context, doing drills on language codes and dialogue performance. This way, in learning a language, learners can also acquire a certain cultural competence. Also, the teaching activity resorts to the integration of culture in language teaching. Three different levels—vocabulary, sentence patterns and dialogue context—will be integrated into the activity of cultural discussion and thereby compose a most practicable activity for learners. Lastly, the teaching activity is centered upon teaching conversation modeling on situated dialogue performance. Here the teaching goal includes the elevation of learners from the level of drills to that of discourse and the heightening of their consciousness of the cultural context and their communicative competence in the target culture.
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