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Title: 「向」、「朝」、「往」之語義分析與教學語法
Semantic Analysis and Pedagogical Grammar of xiang, chao, and wang in Teaching Chinese as a Second Language
Authors: 鄧守信
Keywords: 向朝往
direction prepositions
motion events
pedagogical grammar
Issue Date: 2007
Abstract: 漢語近義詞的研究方興未艾,兼類詞「向」、「朝」、「往」亦為一例,以往著重三者替換關係的描寫,尚無法滿足理論研究與教學。本研究先界定國語在台灣、普通話在大陸的區域性意義,探究其表現在「向」、「朝」、「往」語言現象背後的因素。再者,冀以語義層面的分析,採鄧守信(1975)格語法的理論框架,根據句式、語義分為「S+向1/朝1/往1+NP」、「S+向2/朝2/往2+O+VP(+NP)」、「S+V+往3/向3+O+(VP)」及具抽象延伸義、句式同於向2/朝2/往2的「往4」。在此架構討論三者由動詞所牽動之主語、賓語的語義角色,其間的異同逐漸明朗,達到初步連結格語法與句法關係的目的。 漢語「向」、「朝」、「往」所引介的乃一動態的事件,本研究根基於Jakendoff(1972)、Fillmore(1975)、鄧(1985)、Talmy(2000)以及Chu Chengzhi(2004)對於客體位移事件的闡述,分析「向」、「朝」、「往」因動詞組所形成的移動軌跡;而三者各自的語義特徵又對句法產生哪些限制?這也是研究的主軸之一。另外,與時間因素相關的探討角度,帶領我們釐清一些「向」、「朝」、「往」句法上的困惑。 最後,提供一套建立在語義研究基礎之上的「向」、「朝」、「往」教學語法。鄧(1998, 2003)以理論語法奠基、多項排序參數與語法難易度評定的原則所勾勒出的完整討論架構,有助於我們將語法點等級化、排序,進而採累進式(cumulative)教學,以期達到更有效的教學。 本研究究從不同的語義面向來討論「向」、「朝」、「往」,並將之帶入教學模式的塑造,盼能理出一個兼顧理論研究與教學應用的最佳軌道。
Synonymy is an enduring topic in Chinese language research. However, past studies on the interchangeability of xiang, chao, and wang have been unable to adequately satisfy existing theory and pedagogy. This study begins by defining regional semantic variations of Mandarin in Taiwan and Putonghua in mainland China to explore underlying linguistic factors associated with xiang, chao, and wang. Then, case grammar as developed by Teng (1975) is adopted as a theoretical framework to formulate three sentence patterns: (1) 「S+xiangverb/chaoverb/wangverb+NP」, (2) 「S+xiang1/chao1/wang1+O+VP(+NP)」, and (3) 「S+V+wang2/xiang2+O+(VP)」. Case grammar is applied further to define wang3 as a preposition used for expressing abstract ideas and concepts with its usage restricted to the second pattern. Finally, each pattern is individually discussed to assess whether the semantic roles of subject and object differ. Findings show that this depends on the verb. The similarities and differences of xiang, chao, and wang are thereby gradually elucidated to link case grammar with syntax. Xiang, chao, and wang are indicative of motion events. Based on theme-movement events as described by Jakendoff (1972), Fillmore (1975), Teng (1985), Talmy (2000) and Chu (2004), this study analyzes path as formed by the verb phrase. One theme of this study is asking what limitations the semantic characteristics of xiang, chao, and wang impose on syntax. In addition, examining the temporal aspect facilitates a clearer understanding of syntax with regards to xiang, chao, and wang. Finally, this paper provides a pedagogical grammar for xiang, chao, and wang based on semantics research. Teng (1998, 2003) outlined a complete framework using theoretical syntax, structural sequencing parameters, and the principles of assessing syntactic difficultness. This aids the classification of grammar on different levels of difficulty and structural sequencing, enabling the adoption of cumulative teaching to raise the effectiveness of Chinese pedagogical grammar.
Other Identifiers: GN0692240179
Appears in Collections:學位論文

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