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Collocation and Applications of Chinese Verb Classification
|Abstract:||本文採用Chafe (1970)所主張之動詞中心說，並基於Teng (1974)之動詞分類原則，將漢語動詞分為動作、變化、狀態三大類，再進行次分類。動詞次分類的依據為語義，語義決定主語特徵、動態搭配、與狀語共現的選擇及限制，因此分類的目的在於表現出句法和語義的互動關係。
This thesis adopts from Chafe (1970), the concept “verb-central”, and from Teng (1974), verb classification in modern Chinese, to classify Chinese verbs into 3 major categories: Action, State and Process. The basic principle of this system is semantics and its reflection on syntaxes, co-occurrence restrictions as well as collocations of subjects, aspectual markers and adverbials. These parts, the co-occurrences on verbs, have been the most difficult in terms of teaching and learning; however, they play a key role in the cultivation of learners’ mastery of language. The thesis is based on Teng’s (1974) study of transitivity relations in Chinese, and emphasizes, first of all, the necessity of Process verb as a major category, owing to its feature of both similarity with and difference from Action and State verbs. This thesis treats Adjectives as a sub-category of State verbs and highlights the property of the Chinese adjective as Predicate, in order to avoid the “typical” errors of the Chinese adjectives usage. In addition, the thesis differentiates the verb classifications and situation types. They don’t belong to the same system. To sum up, we sub-categorize Chinese verbs as follows: Subcategories of Action verbs, based on their properties of actions related to location, results and different kinds of objects, include: action verbs, posture verbs, movement verbs, consuming verbs, disposal verbs, content verbs, goal verbs, resultative verbs, stage verbs and semal-factive verbs. State verbs could be classified into 3 subcategories: transitive, intransitive and modal auxiliaries. The transitive state verbs are, by their internal time structure, divided into classificatory and quality verbs, inception-oriented verbs, temporary-state verbs, progressive-state verbs. The intransitive state verbs are so-called adjectives; most of them could serve as both predicate and attributives, but some of them are predicate only, and some, attributive only. Some intransitive state verbs could also modify verbs, as adverbials. There are absolute and non-absolute process verbs. In addition, to exam whether textbooks reflect real usage, we also contrast the verbs in 3 popular textbook series through word-frequencies. In the last part, we provide a suggestive sequence for teaching verbs in Chinese.
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