Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://rportal.lib.ntnu.edu.tw:80/handle/20.500.12235/86359
Title: 漢語動詞分類的句法搭配與教學應用
Collocation and Applications of Chinese Verb Classification
Authors: 鄧守信
Shou-hsin, Teng
許秀霞
Hsiu-hsia, Hsu
Keywords: 事件類型
動詞分類
句法搭配
時間結構
語義特徵
verbs
collocations
semantic features
situation types
time schemata
Issue Date: 2009
Abstract: 本文採用Chafe (1970)所主張之動詞中心說,並基於Teng (1974)之動詞分類原則,將漢語動詞分為動作、變化、狀態三大類,再進行次分類。動詞次分類的依據為語義,語義決定主語特徵、動態搭配、與狀語共現的選擇及限制,因此分類的目的在於表現出句法和語義的互動關係。 漢語動詞分類在教學上的重要性,即是由於語義反映於句式上,是動詞教與學上最關鍵的、也往往是最難的層面,而對於學習成效卻舉足輕重。 本文承襲Teng (1974)所主張之動詞三分,首先強調,除動作、狀態兩大類動詞外,變化動詞獨立為一動詞大類之必要性。 本文也重申Teng (1974)觀點,認為漢語形容詞不與三大類動詞對立,亦即,形容詞歸屬於狀態動詞之一次類。 此外,本文認為動詞分類不等同事件分類,理由是同一個動詞可出現於兩種不同的事件類型中,將漢語完結事件取消並不符合漢語動詞屬性。 本文並於Teng (1974)動詞三大分類基礎上,由時間結構來檢驗次分類的成員: 動作動詞以語義是否內建方位、是否帶結果、賓語不同屬性、動詞時間性,區分出次類為:及物與不及物動作動詞、姿勢動詞、移位動詞、消耗動詞、處置動詞、內容動詞、目標動詞、成果動詞、階段動詞、一次性動作動詞等十小類。 狀態動詞可區分為及物、不及物及能願動詞三次類。及物狀態動詞,以其時間結構可再次分為關係與屬性狀態動詞、起點狀態動詞、暫時狀態動詞、進行狀態動詞。而不及物狀態動詞,也就是傳統分類的形容詞,依其句法特徵,多數既可擔任謂語又可擔任定語,少數僅能作謂語,少數僅能作定語;部分形容詞還可充當狀語。 變化動詞區分為相對和絕對變化動詞兩個次類。相對變化動詞可受部分程度副詞和時態標記修飾。 本文也整理不同教材選取動詞的排序及說明方式,並與詞頻、語料對照。 最後,本文以Teng (2007)漢語詞類的教學語法為根基,提出漢語動詞教學首先應導入動作、變化、狀態三大主要動詞分類概念,其次帶入形容詞附屬於狀態動詞作為次類,而後引入及物性、定語性及可分離性。我們期望藉此方式能使漢語動詞教學有一循序漸進的教學次第。
This thesis adopts from Chafe (1970), the concept “verb-central”, and from Teng (1974), verb classification in modern Chinese, to classify Chinese verbs into 3 major categories: Action, State and Process. The basic principle of this system is semantics and its reflection on syntaxes, co-occurrence restrictions as well as collocations of subjects, aspectual markers and adverbials. These parts, the co-occurrences on verbs, have been the most difficult in terms of teaching and learning; however, they play a key role in the cultivation of learners’ mastery of language. The thesis is based on Teng’s (1974) study of transitivity relations in Chinese, and emphasizes, first of all, the necessity of Process verb as a major category, owing to its feature of both similarity with and difference from Action and State verbs. This thesis treats Adjectives as a sub-category of State verbs and highlights the property of the Chinese adjective as Predicate, in order to avoid the “typical” errors of the Chinese adjectives usage. In addition, the thesis differentiates the verb classifications and situation types. They don’t belong to the same system. To sum up, we sub-categorize Chinese verbs as follows: Subcategories of Action verbs, based on their properties of actions related to location, results and different kinds of objects, include: action verbs, posture verbs, movement verbs, consuming verbs, disposal verbs, content verbs, goal verbs, resultative verbs, stage verbs and semal-factive verbs. State verbs could be classified into 3 subcategories: transitive, intransitive and modal auxiliaries. The transitive state verbs are, by their internal time structure, divided into classificatory and quality verbs, inception-oriented verbs, temporary-state verbs, progressive-state verbs. The intransitive state verbs are so-called adjectives; most of them could serve as both predicate and attributives, but some of them are predicate only, and some, attributive only. Some intransitive state verbs could also modify verbs, as adverbials. There are absolute and non-absolute process verbs. In addition, to exam whether textbooks reflect real usage, we also contrast the verbs in 3 popular textbook series through word-frequencies. In the last part, we provide a suggestive sequence for teaching verbs in Chinese.
URI: http://etds.lib.ntnu.edu.tw/cgi-bin/gs32/gsweb.cgi?o=dstdcdr&s=id=%22GN0692240090%22.&%22.id.&
http://rportal.lib.ntnu.edu.tw:80/handle/20.500.12235/86359
Other Identifiers: GN0692240090
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