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Title: 抱怨語境下的難點分析及教學應用-以日籍漢語學習者為例
Learning difficulties of the complaint form and pedagogical applications by Japanese learners of Chinese
Authors: 曾金金
Chin-Chin Tseng
Keywords: 抱怨言語行為
speech act of complaint
face-saving theory
pragmatic difficulties
communication competence
Issue Date: 2009
Abstract: 語用能力向來在教學現場中被忽視,但同時卻又關係著學習者實際的語言使用能力。本研究之主要目的為以抱怨言語行為為例,找出漢語抱怨言語行為模式,以及學習者在抱怨語境下的難點,以期結合語用研究與教學,幫助學習者提高跨語言跨文化的溝通能力。 本文以Brown和Levinson(1987)的面子保全理論(face-saving theroy)為主要架構,分析影響抱怨表達的社會參數,並提出不同語境下漢語抱怨模式,另外,歸納學習者的偏誤情形,說明難點。主要的研究方法為角色扮演以及合適度測驗,從產出和接受兩方面收集受試者的語料。根據所收集的語料可知,漢日兩組受試者在會話各階段所選用的策略各有偏向,表現出不同的抱怨模式;而選用抱怨策略時,「相對權勢」和「心理距離」都影響漢日受試者,但在漢語文化中,「相對權勢」的影響力大於「心理距離」,而在日語文化中則相反,符合了Brown& Levinson所提出的日本為「高心理距離價值文化」(high D value)的主張,從實驗結果也可推出漢語為「高權勢價值文化」(high P value)。 社會變項影響力的不同也影響了難點的分布,並部份解釋了偏誤的原因。日籍漢語學習者在語用語言學(pragmalinguistics)方面的難點主要為未能掌握好語言形式和語境的使用限制,造成語句過於直接無禮,這些形式以疑問句及句尾助詞的誤用為最多。而在社會語用學(sociopragmatics)方面,從漢日兩組學習者對同一語料的審看結果比較,可以看到漢日文化表現出漢日「多元-一元」、「模糊-精確」、「關聯-獨立」的文化差異。 在教學應用上,根據實驗所觀察到的漢語抱怨言語行為以及日籍漢語學習者的偏誤情形,以溝通式教學法,將不同權勢及心理距離關係融入各種練習活動中,並以「呈現-練習-產出」循序漸進的方式,在「呈現」階段提供學習者漢語抱怨言語行為典範,同時針對日籍學習者的偏誤設計教學活動,提供包含「練習」及「產出」的抱怨言語行為教學流程。
Pragmatic competence is important in cross-cultural communication, but it is usually neglected in language courses. The goal of this study is to investigate the discourse schema of the complaint expression in Chinese. The participants in this study are Japanese learners of Chinese. The author analyzes the difficulties with which the Japanese learner face when they are using complaint expressions in Chinese. At the end of this study, the author designs a pedagogical teaching plan to help improve abilities to form expressions of complaint in Chinese. This study is based on the framework of face-saving theory proposed by Brown& Levinson (1987). Data was gathered from both the learners and native Chinese speakers through oral role play and an acceptability judgment test, which analyzed their strategies and the social parameters that influence their expression. The study found that the Chinese native speakers started the complaint from greeting and followed by asking questions, showing expression of disapproval, and then justification and the request for repair, then finally an expression of thanks. Japanese learners were different from the native speakers in regards to choosing strategies. ‘Relative power’ and ‘mental distance’ may have been the factors that influenced the choices and strategies they made. Based on the data collected, in Chinese, ‘relative power’ had greater influence, while in Japanese, ‘mental distance’ was more important. The result proves Brown and Levinson’s stance: Chinese society is a ‘high power value’ culture, and Japanese society is a ‘high distance value’ culture. The difference in the effect of power and distance are also related to their difficulties in expression. From a pragmalinguistics point of view, the difficulties of the learners are that they have not mastered the restrictions of the language form and context yet, especially in regards to question forms as well as the misuse of modal particles. From a sociopragmatics point of view, Chinese culture shows diversification, ambiguity, and involvement, while Japanese culture is unitary, precise, and independence. At the end of this study, a teaching plan based on the findings is provided. It mixes the complaint schema as well as the learning difficulties into different contexts and present it with in the communicative language teaching (CLT) method.
Other Identifiers: GN0692240040
Appears in Collections:學位論文

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