Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://rportal.lib.ntnu.edu.tw:80/handle/20.500.12235/86256
Title: 華語遠距師培課程與教學能力發展研究
On the Development of Pedagogical Skills for Mandarin Distance Education through a Teaching Training Program
Authors: 謝佳玲
Hsieh, Chia-Ling
李家豪
Li, Jia-Hao
Keywords: 遠距教學
教師培育
教學能力
教師語言
華語教學
distance education
teacher training program
pedagogical skills
teacher talk
teaching Mandarin as a second language
Issue Date: 2018
Abstract: 當代網路科技的躍進推升了遠距教學的發展,其跨時空與高互動的優勢不僅豐富教學資源,符合個人需求,且更有利語言課程的跨境推展。遠距教學的特質鮮明,使得授課教師面臨如設備操作、適應情境、調整教學等難題,因此學者皆強調遠距教師培育的必要性。然而,專論華語遠距教師培育的研究仍屬少數,且遠距教學的能力至今仍未有明確界定,更少見探討教師培育、教學能力與評估指標等層面的綜合研究。為補足文獻闕漏,本研究搭配行動、調查與分析等研究方法,探究教師培育成效、教學能力發展與整合評估指標。 在培育成效方面,本研究觀察「2015年華語遠距教師培育課程」的面授培訓為期八週次,共20小時。研究者以行動研究法的反思模式,釐清培育課程的執行模式,並以內容分析法對應培育課程的主題與任務,再以調查研究法匯集30位報名教師的受訓動機需求調查,以及19位受訓教師的意見調查,從而分析培育成效。在教學能力方面,融合分析與行動研究法,剖析6位受觀察教師於培育前、後教學實驗的教學表現,並以百分比統計對比課程設計、問答調控、任務銜接等教學能力的發展。在整合分析指標方面,採分析法彙整上述結果,最終提出華語遠距教師培育的整合評估指標。 本研究揭示以下三項結果。第一,培育課程成效:培育前教師多重視教學技巧、資源應用、試教實習,其對實作、反思循環的理念仍有待形塑。因此,短期培育課程應涵蓋五個核心主題:培育目標認知、遠距教學觀點、視訊授課技巧、數位資源應用、演練試教實習,以及其中的十二項教學知能。此外,培育單位規劃課程時可搭配情境觀察、主題研習、教學討論、小組協作、個人實作等課型與任務,並提高培育內容的應用性,方能發揮短期密集型培育課程的時效與成效,也有利平衡受訓教師的增能需求與訓練負擔。 第二,教學能力發展:培育後,受觀察教師在課程設計、問答調控、任務銜接等方面設想,皆有更明確的教學考量。在課程設計方面,整體教案更符合格式、重點、活動、問答、討論、評量等編寫原則。投影媒材更能顧及圖文排版、內容教學、討論互動等編排原則。自評紀錄則呈現備課、語言、內容、媒體、應變等反思啟示。且部分教案、媒材的統計呈現明顯的進展。 在問答調控方面,對比百分比統計後,師生言談總量、比例與分布更符合教師精講、學生多講的原則。教師更能掌握提問語言(程序提問、匯集性誘導提問、擴展性誘導提問)、回饋語言(評價、填補、修正、操練、行為),也可避免失效語言,如失效提問(贅述、自答、講解、離題)與失效回饋(過度填補或錯失修正、操練、理答)。此外,培育後教師趨向運用擴展性誘導提問,引導學習者表述如論斷、應用、分析、整合等高層次的口語回應。 在任務銜接方面,教師更能考量任務的類型、程序、配時等應用,其百分比統計也有明顯差異。教師依序鋪排開展(開場寒暄、漸進暖身、課前評量)、探究(學習大綱、課文提要、詞彙運用、句型練習)、研討(文化討論、情境討論、畫筆任務)、鞏固(綜合複習、課後評量)、緩衝(補充教學、逐步緩和)等五個階段與其中的任務。此外,教師可視任務目的,搭配線性或循環的授課模式,使任務甘特圖呈現傾斜走向、集散區段、點線形態等特徵,以及銜接任務的教學要則。 第三,整合評估指標:本研究彙整上述實證結果,並提出華語遠距學的培育課程、教學能力、資源管理等三項整合評估指標,如:培育課程的培訓課時與時效、專題新增與補充、任務考量與安排等指標。教學能力的課程設計、問答調控、任務銜接等指標。資源管理的單位設備與資源、人資職務與管理、教學支持與協助、研習講義與檔案、教材質量與議題等指標。 此外,本文另呈現由行動研究所觀察的培育課程應用與實踐,包含培育課程的籌備事項:如培育進程劃分、目標規定說明、潛在難題防範。執行實例:如培育課程簡介、跨文化溝通觀、教學平台操作、視訊授課技巧、數位能力應用、種子教師傳承、教學演練試教、教學自評反思等八個主題。管理方案:如師資人員協調、設備資源配置、培育成果建檔等應用實例。 本研究希冀上述培育課程成效、教學能力發展、整合評估指標的研究成果、應用與實踐,可供研究者發展後續遠距教師培育研究之基礎,或供培育單位作為規劃同質性培育課程之參考。
Technological advancements have enhanced distance education, which has advantages of enriching teaching materials, fulfilling leaners’ needs, and benefiting Mandarin instruction worldwide. The distance education process involves unique challenges and thus Mandarin teachers may encounter difficulties when conducting distance courses. For example, it requires familiarity with the operating equipment; it is necessary for instructors to adapt to the virtual context of distance teaching; the modifications of teaching method are vital, etc. Researchers have long stressed the significance of training teachers for distance education. However, the quantity of research on teacher training programs for Mandarin distance education is limited and the pedagogical skills of distance education Mandarin teachers are imprecisely defined. There has not yet been a study that integrates teacher training programs, pedagogical skills, and criteria for evaluating these two parameters mentioned above . Therefore, this study applies Action Research, Survey Research, and Content Analysis Research in various research procedures and will be concluded with the effectiveness of the training program, the development of pedagogical skills and integrative evaluating criteria for Mandarin distance education. Regarding the effectiveness of training programs, this study observed the Teacher Training Program for Mandarin Distance Education in 2015. The face-to-face training program was eight weeks long, which includes twenty hours per week. First, the reflective model in Action Research is adapted to illustrate the procedures of the training program. Second, Content Analysis Research is applied to cross-match the correspondence of the weekly topic of the program and assignments for trainees between thematic teacher training models. Third, based on Survey Research, thirty online questionnaires, filled in by applicants, related to motivation and needs for participating in the program as well as nineteen online evaluations for the program, submitted by trainees, were collected and analyzed in order to investigate the effectiveness of training program model designed. In terms of the development of pedagogical skills, both Action Research and Content Analysis Research were utilized in order to observe six trainees who were volunteered to participate pre-and-post teaching experiments. Their teaching performance in these two online Mandarin courses, including course design, teacher talk, interactives and tasks, were analyzed to evaluate their pedagogical skills development before and after the training program. In terms of evaluating criteria for teacher training program, Content Analysis Research was used in order to integrate the findings and among various categories and measurements. The main findings of this research are concern the following: First, this research analyzes effectiveness of teacher training program for Mandarin distance education. Teachers as trainees’ sought to obtain pedagogical skills, application of multimedia, and practice teaching for teaching an online Mandarin course before the training program started. However, most the teachers underestimated the importance of practice and reflective cycles in the reflective model. Therefore, the results suggests that teacher training programs can focus on five core training topics: (1) the introduction to reinforce awareness of the purposes and goals of the program, (2) the perspectives and principles of conducting Mandarin distance course, (3) pedagogical skills and techniques for online courses in a videoconferencing style, (4) the operation of video-conferencing system and other digital teaching resources, (5) the demonstration and practice of operating teaching courseware as well as the online teaching practices. In addition, the analysis concludes that there are 12 essential parameters of pedagogical skills which are highly recommended to be covered in a teacher training program. Tasks for trainees can include online course observation, weekly seminar for the five core topics, review and discussion on teaching practice, small group work for teaching simulation, individual practice teaching. According to the analysis of the evaluation survey, the emphasis of the appropriate arrangement and practicality of weekly seminars and tasks for the training program increases the effectiveness when conducting an intensive program and fulfills participants’ needs. Participants can also benefit from these efficiency training strategies and they serve to ease their stress during the intensive training. Second, this research investigates the development of pedagogical skills through distance education. after participating in the training program, teachers’ consideration of pedagogy for distance education became more precise when they designed courses, manipulate teacher talk and arrange interactivities and tasks in the pre-and-post online Mandarin teaching experiments. A detailed list of improvements include: (1) course design: participants considered more precisely format, purpose, tasks, question-answer, discussion, assessment when organizing a teaching plan. The slides utilized for the online course have been improved by applying the principle of layout, content and interaction of the material. In their teaching journals, the reflection on preparation for the online course, language, content and media used, and unexpected situations and its solutions are documented. Statistical analysis also provides evidence of the improvement on course design skills. (2) teacher talk: according to statistical analysis, in the post teaching experiment, the total utterances, ratio and distribution of teacher-student’s question-and-response tokens reflects the principle of properly restricting the quantity of teacher talk and eliciting the learner’s response. In addition,, teachers manipulate various questioning strategies, including procedural questioning, convergent and divergent elicitation in eliciting questioning as well as the feedback strategies, including evaluating, filling, correcting, drilling and nonverbal feedbacks. They also applied techniques to avoid ineffective questioning (redundant markers, monologuing, narrating, digressing) and ineffective feedback (exceeding response, disregarding accuracy, suspending follow-up-drilling, neglecting fluency). Besides, teachers tend to take advantage of divergent elicitation in order to stimulate learners’ reasoning, application, analysis, and synthesis responses which represent higher level of oral proficiency of language leaner. (3) interactivities and tasks: after the experiment, teachers considered the type, procedure, timing when demonstrating online interactivities and tasks with learners. The five phases in an online Mandarin course are sequentially, opening (greeting, warm-up, pre-assessment), exploring (outline, text, vocabulary, grammar teaching), discussing (cultural, situational and interactive task), reinforcing (review, post-assessment), sparing and easing session (auxiliary materials, wind-down and closure). Furthermore, they carry out linear or spiral teaching model depending on different phases. Through the tilt trend, distribution in sections, and point-or-bar shape showed in Gantt chart, we could learn the sequential organization of interactivities and tasks during online Mandarin course. Third, this research concludes with integrative evaluating criteria for a teacher training program (training hours and its efficiency, auxiliary topics for enhancing the training, tasks design and arrangement for trainees), pedagogical skills through distance education (course design, teacher talk manipulation, and organization of interactivities and task for online Mandarin course), and resource management for a training program (courseware and materials, human resources and responsibility division, assistance and support for teachers as trainees, documentation for the program, materials used for online teaching practice). This research also documented the application and practice during the course of the training program by adapting observation method in Action Research. It includes (1) preparation: dividing training phases, establishing objectives and regulations, potential obstacles and contingency plan for the training program, (2) authentic instances: introduction to the training program, cross-cultural communication and awareness, practice operating the teaching software and the platform, principles and techniques for videoconferencing distance teaching, the application and competence for computer-assisted language instruction, discussion with experienced teachers, small group teaching simulation and individual practice teaching sessions for Mandarin distance courses, discussion and reflection on the practice teaching sessions, and (3) management for training program: coordination of faculty and staff, application of classroom, equipment and software; methods for documentation of the training program. The results and findings of this research could be the basis for further studies on related topics and for institutions to prepare, design and conduct an equivalent teacher training program for Mandarin distance education.
URI: http://etds.lib.ntnu.edu.tw/cgi-bin/gs32/gsweb.cgi?o=dstdcdr&s=%22http://etds.lib.ntnu.edu.tw/cgi-bin/gs32/gsweb.cgi?o=dstdcdr&s=id=%22G080080003I%22.&%22.id.&
http://rportal.lib.ntnu.edu.tw:80/handle/20.500.12235/86256
Other Identifiers: G080080003I
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