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Research of Classical Chinese Textbook for Non-native learners
Chinese as a foreign language
As the population of advance level Chinese learners increases, the number of students taking Classical Chinese also increases. This growing trend puts the selection of appropriate Classical Chinese teaching materials in higher demands. However, the research of Classical Chinese teaching materials is rather limited. On top of that, selecting appropriate texts to include in these teaching materials are even more difficult. This research looks into the selection of available Classical Chinese teaching materials and derives a principle for selecting texts based on word heritage to use in composing Classical Chinese teaching materials. In this study, 21 sets of Classical Chinese teaching materials from Taiwan, China, Korea, Japan, the United States, and France were analyzed according to the following: First, texts in each textbook were analyzed and cross-reference with Classical Chinese texts for native learners for their basis of selection to derive at 9 principles for text selection. Thirty-nine highly selected texts were used as the basis for this study. Second, a survey on the needs for Classical Chinese teaching materials was conducted among teachers and learners. Third, established a qualitative text selection principle based on word heritage. For each text, the ratio of ancient Chinese words that are still in use today was used to determine the level of difficulty of the text. Words were then arranged by word frequency as supplement standards. Fourteen Classical Chinese texts were chosen based on the needs of the users as beginner Classical Chinese materials. These texts were arranged from easy to hard using the word heritage principle. Last, the lesson for each text composed of style of the text, words, syntax, and exercises. Conclusions for this study based on the above analytical steps are: Establishing a qualitative text selection principle based on word heritage; Proposing two hypotheses that existing teaching materials use in their textbook arrangement: Reading pedagogy using mainly the selected text and functional pedagogy; Differentiating regional differences in existing teaching materials: Teaching materials in the U.S. and Europe mainly focus on sentence structures, whereas teaching materials in China use descriptive approach to explain syntax, while teaching materials in Korea and Japan introduce the syntax at the beginning or at the end of the text; Composing a lesson based on the results found.
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