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Title: 華語教育作為公眾外交實踐–以巴拿馬為例
Chinese Education as the Practice of Public Diplomacy in Panama
Authors: 楊聰榮
Yang, Cong-Rong
Hu, Hung-Chun
Keywords: 公眾外交
Public Diplomacy
Chinese Education
Overseas Chinese
Substitute Military Service
Issue Date: 2018
Abstract: 中華民國與巴拿馬的外交關係始於晚清時期,到中華民國成立後至遷 台,隨著時間進程不斷地透過政治、經濟、文化等外交途徑加強雙方合 作,企圖穩固邦交。中華民國政府遷台後數十年來國際情勢的轉變、中華 民國在國際間外交情勢轉弱等因素,中南美洲邦交國對中華民國的重要性 是與時俱增,不同時期的領導者其外交政策都對此處多所著墨,期望在實 質的外交關係往來上能為中華民國在國際間發聲,爭取外交空間,以維護 一國的主權。 身為中南美洲邦交國之一的巴拿馬也存在為數不少的華人。西元 1854 年 首批華人勞工抵達巴拿馬修築鐵路,為巴拿馬現存最早正式記載華人移民 在巴國的史事。在一百六十二年的移民史中,華人不斷地從中國、台灣、 港澳地區等地移民至巴拿馬,從早期從事勞力修築鐵路與運河,進而開始 經商,到近代因教育水準提高,開始涉足其他經濟領域或參與政治,為巴 拿馬的整體發展做出不少的貢獻。 公眾外交做為一種外交理念,輔以軟實力的概念做政策制定與推廣,是 希望在傳統外交模式之外,作為一國爭取外交空間的「第四種外交模式」。 企圖將一國長時間的發展中所累積的無形和有形資產,轉化為承載「國家 形象」的訊息,將國家形象打造成一個「品牌」,來讓他國的人民或政府, 在長期的互動過程中,對訊息內化產生認同,進而制訂對本國有利的外交 政策。為配合國家外交政策之推行,中華民國將華語教育作為公眾外交理 念的一種實踐方式,透過遴選適合的華語教師於巴拿馬大學、巴拿馬科技 大學、中巴文化中心中山學校等三處進行華語教學,來配合並完善台灣對 巴拿馬的外交政策。 本文以參與觀察法並配合相關文獻,來討論在公眾外交理念與僑務政策 實行之下,華語教育在研究者任教的巴拿馬中巴文化中心中山學校的發展 情形,並訪談曾經同時期任教該校的替代役男華語教師,來討論身為國家 外派的外交人員如何協助邦交國的華語教育發展,並就訪談中的內容來討 論成效與限制。
China established diplomatic relationship with Panama since 1910, then this relations was inherited by Republic of China (ROC). Panama as a member of ROC’s state diplomatic relations in Central and South America, both sides has reinforced diplomatic relations in Political, economical and Cultural way. Since ROC government moved to Taiwan, the international affairs and diplomatic status had changed in decades, the diplomatic relations in Central and South America has played an important role for Taiwan to maintain the national sovereignty and extend the diplomatic status in the world by strong and consistent diplomatic relations. As a diplomatic member to ROC, there are many overseas Chinese in Panama. 1854 was the first year of Chinese labor reached to Panama to work for railway construction. In 162 years of immigration, Chinese consistently moved to Panama from China and Taiwan. From working for railway and canon construction as a labor, till got involved in business and politics by education, Chinese Panamanians have done great contribution for Panama. Public Diplomacy, as an idea of diplomatic strategy, within the conception of Soft Power, also is so-called “The forth diplomatic mode” for a country to extend its diplomatic relations. Public Diplomacy attempts to build a “brand” which represents national image, then broadcast to other countries, hopefully affects a country’s government officials and people to have identity with the brand, in order to formulate the foreign policy that benefits bilaterally.Taiwan sees Chinese education as a way to achieve the goal of public diplomacy, by choosing Chinese teachers to teach in Panama University, Technological University of Panama and Centro Cultrual Chino Panameño. This thesis uses participant observation as research method and related literatures to discuss the Chinese education development in Centro Cultrual Chino Panameño under the idea of public diplomacy, within the achievements and limits by interviewing the Substitute Military Service Chinese teachers.
Other Identifiers: G0699800497
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