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Title: 任務型教學法於華文口語課上的運用—以新加坡某中學學習者為研究對象
Application of Task-based Approach to a Chinese Oral Course—in the case of a Secondary School in Singapore
Authors: 杜昭玫
Kee, Keng-Ling
Keywords: 新加坡華文教育
Chinese education in Singapore
teaching of Chinese as a second language
class design for oral courses
communicative competence
task-based approach
Issue Date: 2018
Abstract: 縱觀過往文獻對新加坡華語文環境所作的討論,大多認同新加坡華人社會與中港台等地的社會環境有別,故新加坡不以華語作為第一語言,然而其華語學習又不像其他沒有華語環境背景的地區那樣,將華語當成外語來學習。在四十年的教育變革之中,新加坡華文教育的定位已逐步確立,即一個朝向「華文作為第二語言」的社會語言與教學環境。為了適應日趨多元的語言環境,最新的2011年新加坡中學華文課程標準強調了語言交際能力、人文素養與通用能力的培養,顯著地確立了「交際能力」在課程目標的核心地位。但是,本文在對新加坡華文教育發展及中學(快捷)華文課程口語教學的現狀做了探討後,發現現有教材的口語教學在培養交際能力方面依然存有不足。 因此,本論文旨在探究新加坡中學華文口語教學的特點,並以任務型教學法作為理論基礎針對口語課進行教學設計,以彌補原來教材的不足。為了探討本次任務型教學法在華文口語課上的運用,本文將進一步分析學習者的課堂話語與課後調查問卷。 筆者歸納兩次口語課在設計前與設計後的總體表現,有了以下發現。低年級班方面:(1)意義協商策略明顯增加;(2)舉例不當的問題有所改善;(3)闡述經驗出現自行歸類的情況。高年級班方面,一是意義協商和反駁策略的運用更加純熟;二是總結小組觀點更能結合實例加強論述;三是自我修正和回應意識加強。學習者課後調查結果也顯示,學習者對本研究所設計的口語課的實用性、互動性與趣味性大多給予正面評價。學習者也對口語課所設定的說話目標給予了肯定。
Earlier discussion of Singapore’s Chinese socio-linguistic environment acknowledges its stark difference from other Chinese-majority counterparts and non-Chinese nation states, whereby Chinese in Singapore is not positioned as a first language nor a foreign language. Over the last forty years of educational reform, Chinese teaching in Singapore has been positioned as ‘teaching of Chinese as a second language’. In order to keep up with the evolving linguistic landscape, the 2011 Chinese Language (Secondary) Syllabus, developed by Curriculum Planning and Development, continues to highlight the development of communicative competence, humanistic accomplishment and general ability as part of its curriculum goals, and significantly raises ‘communicative competence’ to its core focus. The paper examines the development of Chinese education in Singapore and how the teaching of oral skills is designed in the current syllabus, and it is found that the oral content in the textbooks is still lacking in communicative nature. The paper attempts to discuss characteristics of Singapore’s Chinese oral syllabus at the secondary level and seeks to apply the principles of task-based approach (TBA) to the design of a Chinese oral course in Singapore. A learner questionnaire and post-course discourse analysis are put in place to better understand how learners use communicative strategies in the Chinese course design based on TBA approach. Analysis of the results suggest that students in the lower secondary class exhibits (1) more use of negotiation of meaning in the second lesson where the course was re-designed; (2) an improvement in providing substantial examples; (3) an ability to differentiate views when relating to one’s own experience. For the higher secondary class, there is (1) increased familiarity with the usage of meaning negotiation and expression of disagreement; (2) better ability to summarize others’ viewpoints with the use of real examples; (3) occurrence of self-repair and stronger response awareness. It is found that learners give positive feedback about the designed course, especially in terms of practical use, interactivity, interest, and learning objectives.
Other Identifiers: G060484033I
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