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Title: 語義及句法對西班牙語及中文母語人士在中文理解的影響
Effects of Semantics and Syntax on Chinese and Spanish Native Speakers' Chinese Sentences Comprehension
Authors: 徐東伯
Hsu, Dong-Bo
Chang, Yu-Tzu
Keywords: 西班牙語
The extended Argument Dependency Model
Good Enough Representation
Shallow Structure Hypothesis
Competition Model
Issue Date: 2017
Abstract: 語言理解的相關議題除了語言如何被處理及理解以外,還有學習者的母語會不會影響他們的外語學習,如果會,又將如何影響他們的外語學習。本研究以「淺層結構假說」(Clahsen and Felser, 2006)、「夠用就好表徵」(Ferreira, 2003)、「競爭模型」(Li, P., Bates, E.,& MacWhinney, B., 1993)及「擴展論元依存模型」(Bornkessel, I., & Schlesewsky, M., 2006)為基礎,針對不同漢語程度的西班牙母語者和中文母語者對中文簡單合法句的處理,觀察其受到「句型」(SVO、把字句、被字句)、「生命性」(有生命性變項的操弄則有有生命施事對有生命受事AA、有生命施事對無生命受事 AI和無生命施事對有生命受事IA)和「合理性」(合理、不合理)三個變項的影響。研究結果發現:第一,不支持C&F的淺層結構假說,因為二語學習者在獨存句法線索的狀況下仍舊可以正確地理解語句。第二,部分支持夠用就好假說,因為漢語母語者在違反NVN捷思法的被動句狀況下,反應時間顯著地久於可使用正向NVN捷思法策略的把字句和SVO句,代表其以NVN捷思法進行語句處理;但中高級學習者不支持此假說,因為在合理句的狀況下,他們回答逆轉NVN被字句時的反應時間顯著地短於把字句並短於SVO句,代表比起NVN捷思法的運用,中高級學習者更加依賴句法標記。第三,西班牙語者在初級程度時較依賴生命性線索,漢語母語者則是較依賴句法線索,但隨著學習者的熟練度提升,他們對於漢語中句法線索的依賴也升高,符合競爭模型中對二語習得者的假設。最後,擴展論元依賴假說指出,即使第一階段先設定句法模板SVO,也可在第二階段閱讀到標記「被」改變選擇,且最後階段的合理性計算中,視合理狀況,可重回第一、二階段去尋找線索,解釋了本實驗發現中高級受試者在合理SVO句中找不到可依賴的線索,而不合理SVO句則有合理性線索可依賴,因此前者比後者更花時間的結果。
The purpose of current study is to focus on the effects of semantics and syntax on Chinese and Spanish native speakers in Chinese comprehension, using Mandarin simple grammatical sentence as materials with experimental psycholinguistic techniques, in an effort to explain the effects brought about by ‘syntax' (SVO, Ba and Bei construction), 'animacy' (AA, IA, AI) and 'plausibility' factors with 4 language comprehension theories- Shallow Structure Hypothesis (Clahsen and Felser, 2006), Good Enough Representation (Ferreira, 2003), Competition Model (Li, P., Bates, E.,& MacWhinney, B., 1993) and The extended Argument Dependency Model (Bornkessel, I., & Schlesewsky, M., 2006). The results are as follows. First, it does not support C&F's Shallow Structure Hypothesis because second language learners can comprehend sentences correctly with only syntactic cue. Secondly, it partly agrees with good enough representation since Mandarin speakers' reaction time is much longer under counter NVN heuristics (Bei construction) than NVN heuristics (Ba construction and SVO),indicating the use of NVN heuristics; but the results from high proficiency Mandarin L2 Spanish L1 speakers do not agree with the NVN representation for the reaction time under plausible conditions for Bei construction is significantly shorter than Ba and SVO under plausible conditions. Thirdly, Spanish speakers with low proficiency in Mandarin rely more on animacy cues whereas Spanish speakers with high proficiency in Mandarin and Mandarin speakers rely more on syntactic cues when processing Chinese. As second learners' proficiency increases, their reliance on Chinese cues rises as well, conforming to the Competition Model. Lastly, eADM indicated that though it is required to set up a syntactic template in phase 1, it is allowable to go back and make changes when reaching any word such as bei in phase 2. In phase 3, if implausible cue is detected, people make a final intepretation without going back to the previous phases. While under plausible condition, people find no cue to rely on and go back to the phase 1 or 2. This explains why high proficiency learners spend more time in plausible SVO than implausible SVO.
Other Identifiers: G060384018I
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