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Sentence processing strategies of Mandarin native speaker and French learner of Mandarin: Examine the effect of the sentence structure, the plausibility and the reversibility
second language acquisition
|Abstract:||以競爭模型為框架的中文語句處理研究肯定了中文生命性的語言線索效度大於語序，然夠用就好理論卻認為「原型施事者＋動詞＋原型受事者」的淺層結構與合理性才是人類慣常處理語句的策略，否定了生命性的效果。另一方面，淺層結構假說認為無論熟練度高低學習者都僅會使用詞彙語意資訊及淺層結構來理解目標語語句，無法深層處理；而競爭模型的二語研究則認為學習者的處理策略會隨著熟練度增加而趨近於母語。本研究以中文母語者及法語為母語的中級與高級華語學習者為對象，檢視他們在理解不同可逆性、合理性的中文主動句、把字句與被動句時所使用的模式。結果發現，中文母語者大致會運用「原型施事者＋動詞＋原型受事者」的淺層結構來理解語句，然句中論元間施動力的階層差異 (包含生命性對比) 與合理性一樣會促進困難句的理解以及和句式交互作用，母語者也似乎仍會展現出深層的處理，這些是夠用就好理論沒預測到的效果；學習者的結果指出，中級學習者與高級學習者都會用「原型施事者＋動詞＋原型受事者」的語序策略理解中文語句，然語意資訊對中級學習者的影響較大，高級學習者則能不受語意資訊影響，較一致地使用此語序策略，但兩組學習者的作答正確率皆沒有表現出中文母語者可逆性及合理性分別和句式的交互作用，他們亦無法如母語者區分出論元施動力階層的微妙差異，其把字句的反應時間結果亦無法顯現出母語者相異於主動句的深層處理，故部分符合淺層結構假說的預測，二語學習者沒有母語者深層的句法表徵。然而實驗結果顯示學習者在熟練度提升後，其中文語句的處理愈加傾向母語者，學習者到了高級不僅在以語序的詮釋上與母語者相似，反應時間也顯示出趨近於母語者的生命性對比效果，加以學習者能夠感知到把字句與被字句不同頻率因而有不同的處理模式，說明學習者能感知到所處目標語語言環境的變化，逐漸發展出趨近於目標語的處理策略，於是競爭模型也得到了支持。|
The sentence processing study in the framework of Competition model reveals that the cue strengths of animacy are larger than word order in Mandarin Chinese, while Good-enough theory denies the effect of animacy, upholding that the shallow structure of "Proto-agent-verb-proto-patient" and plausibility are the strategies that humans use to comprehend the sentence. On the other hand, Shallow structure hypothesis argues that regardless of their proficiency and native language, the second language learner relies on lexical-semantic information during processing of the target language. Their syntactic representation is not as detailed as the native speakers. But Competition model predicts that L2er’s proficiency can be more and more native-like as the increase of proficiency. The current study examines the processing strategy of active sentence, ba-construction, and passive sentences in different plausibility and reversibility conditions by Mandarin native speakers and French L2 learners of Chinese. The results show that Mandarin native speakers utilize the shallow structure of "Proto-agent-verb-proto-patient" to comprehend the sentence. However, the difference of power hierarchy between the two arguments (including contrast of animacy) is found to have a similar effect with plausibility. The difference of power hierarchy and the plausibility can both accelerate the comprehension of difficult structures and interact with the sentence structure. Moreover, the native speakers appear to show a deep processing. These results are not predicted by Good-enough theory. L2ers’ results show that both intermediate and advanced learners use the word order strategy of "Proto-agent-verb-proto-patient" to comprehend Mandarin sentences. But, the lexical-semantic information has greater influence on intermediate learners than advanced learners. Advanced learners can use the word order strategy more consistently. Nonetheless, none of the L2ers' results show an interaction between reversibility and structure and between plausibility and structure like native speakers. Furthurmore, L2 learners not only cannot distinguish the difference of power hierarchy between two arguments, they cannot process differently two actives but structurally different sentence: SVO and ba-construction like native speakers, either. Therefore, the results of L2 learners partly fit the predictions of Shallow structure hypothesis: L2ers’ syntactic representation is not as deep as native speakers. Nevertheless, as the increase of proficiency, learners’ L2 processing strategies are more and more native-like because of using word order strategy and their animacy contrast effect. L2ers’formation of syntactic strategies can be affected by input frequencies and animacy contrast embedded in the sentences in question, which also fits the prediction of Competition Model.
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