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Title: 漢語母語者及學習者敘述體寫作之前後景研究
A Study of Grounding in the Narrative Writing of Chinese L1 Speakers and L2 Learners
Authors: 陳俊光
Chen, Jyun-Gwang
Wong, Chau-Hung
Keywords: 前後景
narrative discourse
temporal location
temporal advancement
error analysis
discourse grammar
Issue Date: 2017
Abstract: 前景和後景是篇章分析中常用的概念,在談到敘事篇章時常會提及。然而,前景、後景的二分法普遍受到質疑。本研究擬採取更具動態且較整全的視角,以真實語料為依據,驗證前後景理論是否具體可操作,並探究前後景理論與時間表達,這兩個與敘事篇章密切相關的概念,兩者之間的互動關係。 在前後景設置上,研究結果顯示漢語母語者在寫作短篇的前景句比率較學習者來說相對較低,通過變異數分析後,結果顯示母語者與學習者的數據具很顯著差異,前後景的分布符合後景向前景推進原則(Background-to-Foreground Progression, BFP),為數接近一半的前景句出現在篇章段落末句。 關於前景中所使用的顯性語言形式,漢語學習者最常使用的形式為時間詞及連接詞,而母語者所使用的主要形式則為三類補語,包括結果、趨向及目標補語。在時間詞的類別中,時間名詞及短語、後時關係時間詞是兩類最普遍使用的形式,前者通常在段落首句出現,所在分句擔任後景並協助時間定位;後者所在分句則較多充當前景並具時間推進的功能。進一步檢視這兩類時間詞,研究發現母語者在短篇中使用非直指時間表達形式,而三組學習者在短篇中皆保持穩定數量的直指時間表達形式,約佔全數的三分之一。而在後時關係時間詞方面,其所在分句於段落中的位置,對前景的實現具直接的關係,而顯性語言形式,例如完成貌「了」及補語,所代表的是「有界」的概念並用以推進時間,對前景的實現則無直接的關係。 最後筆者根據以上研究結果,歸納整理出學習者在前後景設置、時間定位及時間推進方面所犯的偏誤;並將研究結果應用至教學層面,針對初級階段漢語學習中的篇章教學與語法教學提出相關建議。 本研究的教學啟示包含兩個面向:第一,篇章語法需在初級階段的漢語學習中引入,並以前後景的基本概念及從屬化手段為核心內容。第二,語法教學的內容,即在前景及時間推進中所使用的顯性語言形式,如時貌標記、補語及時間狀語等資訊的語法功能,以及這些語言形式之間的互動制約,只有在敘述篇章中才能得到更好的體現,以及更準確的掌握。
The concept of grounding is frequently used and generally accepted by discourse analysts in relation with narrative discourse. However, the binarity of foreground and background has been criticized for its rigidity. By adopting a more dynamic and holistic view, this study aims to (1) examine the concept of grounding and put it into practice with empirical work; (2) investigate the relationship and the interactions between the theories of grounding and temporal interpretation, which plays a key role in narrative discourse. The results show that the percentage of foreground clauses used by Chinese native speakers in their narrative writing is lower than for Chinese learners, and the ANOVA test results show that the difference is very significant. The distribution of foreground and background is in accordance with the Background-to-Foreground Progression(BFP), given that approximately half of the foreground clauses take the position of the last clause in paragraphs. Among the explicit forms used in foreground, the number of connectives including the category of temporal is highest in the groups of Chinese learners, while the Chinese native speakers take the verb complements as the main form. In the category of temporal connectives, time phrases and the adverbials expressing after-time are the two most widely used items. For time phrases, they are usually used in the initial clause of paragraphs, serving as a background and have a temporal location function. While the adverbials serve as a foreground and has a temporal advancement function. By examining these two forms closely, we found that Chinese native speakers tend to use the non-deictic forms of time phrases in their narratives, while the three groups of Chinese learners used a steady amount of the deictic forms, approximately equal to one third of the time phrases, regardless of their competence levels. For the after-time adverbials, the position which they take in the paragraph has a direct effect on grounding, while the explicit forms including the perfect aspect marker “le” and a verb complement, both representing the “boundedness” and as critical criteria for temporal advancement, have no direct effects on grounding. The last part of the study consists of an error analysis which focuses on errors found in the narrative writing of the Chinese learners, ranging from grounding to aspectual, lexical and adverbial information used in temporal location and temporal advancement. The pedagogical implications of these findings are two-fold: It is necessary to introduce discourse grammar, including the basic idea of grounding and subordination at the beginning stage of Chinese learning. The usage of the explicit forms which present in foreground and temporal advancement, including aspectual, lexical and adverbial information, as well as the interaction between these explicit forms are best realized and understood in narrative discourse.
Other Identifiers: G060284028I
Appears in Collections:學位論文

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