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Title: 漢語「寧可」的篇章、語用研究與教學啟示
A Discourse and Pragmatic Analysis of Ningke in Chinese and Its Pedagogical Implications
Authors: 陳俊光
Chen, Jyun-Gwang
Lyu, Ruei-Tsz
Keywords: 讓步
end focus
contrastive focus
Issue Date: 2017
Abstract: 漢語副詞「寧可」在詞性、複句關係、語用關係等方面有很多相關文獻,但分析結果都不盡相同,本論文將釐清以上問題。由於過去文獻多著重複句以及語用方面主觀性的探討,因此本論文以真實語料庫為本,以Halliday(1985)的「概念」、「篇章」、「人際」為理論基礎,探討漢語副詞「寧可」在篇章、語用方面的功能,並根據研究結果評析現行教材和提供建議。 首先,在篇章層面上,副詞「寧可」位於主語後,稱為句內範距,位於主語前,則為句外範距,經研究發現,「寧可」較傾向出現在主語之後;而焦點功能上,「寧可」句內範距的範距小,形成句尾焦點,句外範距的範距大,帶出的是跨句的對比焦點。 其次,複句「寧可」的主句在篇章中的隱性比例高於顯性,根據語言經濟原則,主句本身是舊信息或是聽話者可從自身知識和經驗推衍,因此可省,而隱性「寧可」句與下文有詞彙連貫關係,形成句尾焦點,由此可知,「寧可」句本身實為一焦點句式;另一方面,「寧可從句」的主句有前顯和後顯之分,「後顯主句」位於「寧可從句」之後,為無標句式,比例高於有標的「前顯主句」,位於「寧可從句」之前,乃由「寧可從句」後移至主句後而成。就篇章功能而言,「後顯主句」本身即為信息焦點所在,作為前景信息,能推動後文的發展。反之,「前顯主句」的功能乃為「承接前文」,以做為更大前後文的連貫樞紐,而使後移的「寧可從句」成為信息焦點所在,以與下文連接,推動其發展。 再者,語用方面,「寧可」為動力情態詞,語用功能為反預期。本論文亦探討「寧可從句」和「寧前/後主句」與情態詞的共現,發現「寧可從句」多與認知情態共現,而「寧前/後主句」多與「動力情態詞」共現。
There is a wealth of relevant literature on the subject of the Chinese adverb ningke, mostly focusing on part of speech, structural relation between the two clauses, and pragmatic function. Results of these analyses vary. Thus, this research seeks to clarify any remaining contradictions. Past literature concentrates mainly on complex sentences and pragmatic subjectivity. Therefore, this study is based on empirical data and adopts the theoretical framework found in Halliday’s metafunctions of language, encompassing ideational, textual, and interpersonal functions (Halliday, 1985) in order to examine the adverb at both the discourse and pragmatic levels. Additionally, the author has applied the results to analyze some Chinese-language textbooks, providing pedagogical suggestions for Chinese-language teachers. At the discourse level, the adverb ningke can serve as either an intra-sentential or inter-sentential connector, the first occurring when ningke appears after the subject, and the second when appearing before the subject. In this research, ningke mostly appears after the subject. In terms of focus, intra-sentential ningke establishes a smaller discourse scope, producing an end focus. Inter-sentential ningke, on the other hand, establishes a larger discourse scope, producing a contrastive focus. Furthermore, the main clause of a complex sentence formed with ningke is often omitted. According to the principle of economy, given information or information that may be gleamed through experience need not be mentioned again. “Implicit ningke main clauses” exhibit lexical cohesion with antecedent clauses, producing an end focus, and therefore suggesting that clauses formed with ningke are actually focus clauses. In contrast, “explicit main clauses”, in relation to its subordinating ningke clause, have two types—one which appears before the ningke clause, and one appearing after.The first type, appearing after a ningke clause, is called the “postposed explicit main clause,” and is an unmarked sentence. The second, appearing before the ningke clause, is called a “preposed explicit main clause” , which originates from moving the subordinating ningke clause to after its main clause, and is a marked sentence. In the data, instances of “postposed explicit main clauses” are greater in number than “preposed explicit main clause.” In terms of discourse function, the “postposed explicit main clause” is an focus, presenting foreground information which is to be elaborated on in following sentences. On the other hand, the function of “preposed explicit main clauses” is to connect previous sentences with whatever comes next to form a larger coherent context, thus allowing the postposed subordinating ningke clause to carry focus that is elaborated in the following sentences. Pragmatically, ningke serves as a dynamic modality and functions as a counter-expectation marker. This study further compares the occurrence of modal adverbs in the subordinating ningke clauses and its main clauses (both preposed and postposed), respectively, with the majority of the former falling under the category of epistemic modality, and that of the latter under the category of dynamic modality.
Other Identifiers: G060284018I
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