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A semantic and Discourse Analysis of Qishi and Shishishang in Chinese and Its Pedagogical Implications
本論文以臺灣地區兩大語料庫—聯合知識庫 （UDN data） 和中文詞彙特性素描系統 （Chinese Word Sketch Engine, CWS）中有關「其實」和「事實上」—共400筆語料，以及前人研究為基礎，探討兩者的基本語義，藉以釐清其篇章功能之異同。
The present thesis has adopted the theoretical framework of Halliday’s meta-function which encompasses ideational, textual, and interpersonal functions (Halliday 1985, 1994, 2004). Based on this framework and on authentic written and spoken data, the discourse aspects of Mandarin Chinese qishi (actually) and shishishang (in fact) are explored. Additionally, the results of this study are applied for pedagogical purposes. This study is substantiated by empirical data, composed of 400 tokens of data from two corpuses in Taiwan; one is UDN data and the other is Chinese Word Sketch Engine, CWS in Taiwan as well as by some former studies on qishi and shishishang. The basic semantic meanings of these two modal adverbs are distinguished in order to investigate their differences in discourse. First, from the perspective of diachronic semantic evolution, qishi has the function of counter-expectation, while shishishang has the function of further elaboration. Throughout the centuries, qishi has carried the meaning of further elaboration; whereas Shishishang has carried the meaning of counter-expectation. These two are modal adverbs, which can be used to either introduce a refutation of one’s opinion or attitude toward a proposition (counter-expectation) or to introduce a reinforcement of an idea (further elaboration). Moreover, the data of corpuses reveals that the sentence-initial shishishang has a higher frequency of occurrence than qishi. Qishi occurs more in a inter- sentence than shishishang. The reason for the two adverbs differing so widely in their syntactic position is that shishishang possesses a larger scope than qishi, which indicates that shishishang has a stronger function in discourse so as to link the utterer’s prior utterance and coming utterance. Furthermore, in terms of semantic coherence and lexical cohesion at the discourse level, when qishi and shishishang occur in the inter-sentence, they modify the verb in the sentence, which results in end focus — an event is described. By contrast, when they occur in the initial position in a sentence, they operate within an extended scope, which results in the contrast focus — two events are discussed. Last but not least, at the pedagogical level, based on the linguistic analysis in this study, five L2 Chinese textbooks that are commonly used in Taiwan and the U.S.A. are reviewed. The analysis is followed by a series of teaching suggestions.
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