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Title: 漢語「其實」和「事實上」的語義、篇章分析與教學啟示 漢語「其實」和「事實上」的語義、篇章分析與教學啟示
A semantic and Discourse Analysis of Qishi and Shishishang in Chinese and Its Pedagogical Implications
Authors: 陳俊光
Chen, Jyun-Gwang
Yu, Ya-Hsin
Keywords: 反預期
further elaboration
end focus
contrastive focus
Issue Date: 2017
Abstract: 本論文以Halliday的「概念」(ideational)、「篇章」(textual)、「人際」(interpersonal) 三大純理功能(interpersonal)為分析架構,以真實語料為基礎,探討現代漢語「其實」和「事實上」在篇章層面的語言現象,並將研究結果應用於教學中。 本論文以臺灣地區兩大語料庫—聯合知識庫 (UDN data) 和中文詞彙特性素描系統 (Chinese Word Sketch Engine, CWS)中有關「其實」和「事實上」—共400筆語料,以及前人研究為基礎,探討兩者的基本語義,藉以釐清其篇章功能之異同。 首先,從歷時的角度來看,「其實」一開始的用法就是「反預期」,之後演變出「進一步闡述」的功能;而「事實上」一開始就有「進一步闡述」的用法,之後演變出「反預期」的功能。此兩者皆為情態詞,連接性狀語,即說話者用以表達對於命題的態度以及看法,因而有著反預期以及進一步闡述兩種功能。 其次,從語料庫統計的數據來看,句外的「事實上」筆數高於「其實」,而且句內的筆數「其實」高於「事實上」,兩者有如此的差異在於「事實上」的「範距」大於「其實」;「事實上」的範距較大,管轄範圍較大,因此放在句首,篇章功能強,用以連接上、下文。 再者,就焦點功能而言,「其實」和「事實上」出現在句中,從「語義連貫」和「詞彙銜接」這兩個面向來觀察,此兩個情態詞的範距小,只管轄動詞,產生「句尾焦點」,描述一件事;而「其實」和「事實上」放在句首,範距相對大,因而產生「對比焦點」,相對上是在陳述兩件事,構成了語言的整個連續體。 最後筆者根據以上分析結果,評析五本臺灣及美國目前通行的華語教材,建議將「其實」和「事實上」研究結果應用於課程之中。
The present thesis has adopted the theoretical framework of Halliday’s meta-function which encompasses ideational, textual, and interpersonal functions (Halliday 1985, 1994, 2004). Based on this framework and on authentic written and spoken data, the discourse aspects of Mandarin Chinese qishi (actually) and shishishang (in fact) are explored. Additionally, the results of this study are applied for pedagogical purposes. This study is substantiated by empirical data, composed of 400 tokens of data from two corpuses in Taiwan; one is UDN data and the other is Chinese Word Sketch Engine, CWS in Taiwan as well as by some former studies on qishi and shishishang. The basic semantic meanings of these two modal adverbs are distinguished in order to investigate their differences in discourse. First, from the perspective of diachronic semantic evolution, qishi has the function of counter-expectation, while shishishang has the function of further elaboration. Throughout the centuries, qishi has carried the meaning of further elaboration; whereas Shishishang has carried the meaning of counter-expectation. These two are modal adverbs, which can be used to either introduce a refutation of one’s opinion or attitude toward a proposition (counter-expectation) or to introduce a reinforcement of an idea (further elaboration). Moreover, the data of corpuses reveals that the sentence-initial shishishang has a higher frequency of occurrence than qishi. Qishi occurs more in a inter- sentence than shishishang. The reason for the two adverbs differing so widely in their syntactic position is that shishishang possesses a larger scope than qishi, which indicates that shishishang has a stronger function in discourse so as to link the utterer’s prior utterance and coming utterance. Furthermore, in terms of semantic coherence and lexical cohesion at the discourse level, when qishi and shishishang occur in the inter-sentence, they modify the verb in the sentence, which results in end focus — an event is described. By contrast, when they occur in the initial position in a sentence, they operate within an extended scope, which results in the contrast focus — two events are discussed. Last but not least, at the pedagogical level, based on the linguistic analysis in this study, five L2 Chinese textbooks that are commonly used in Taiwan and the U.S.A. are reviewed. The analysis is followed by a series of teaching suggestions.
Other Identifiers: G060284015I
Appears in Collections:學位論文

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