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Title: 漢語「連字結構」的篇章、語用研究與教學應用
A Discourse and Pragmatic Analysis of the “Lian” Structure and Its Pedagogical Applications
Authors: 陳俊光
Keywords: 對比項
contrastive items
grounding theory
topic continuity
procedural encoder
Issue Date: 2015
Abstract: 本研究以Halliday的概念(ideational)、篇章(textual)、人際(interpersonal)三大語言純理功能(metafunction)為分析架構,以真實語料為基礎,討論現代漢語「連字結構」在篇章、語用層面的語言現象及其聯繫,並依研究結果進行教學設計。 本研究以臺灣地區書面語料601筆為本梳理前人研究。本研究認為臺灣地區的現代漢語「連字結構」中「連」已虛化為一焦點標記助詞,而非介詞。在篇章功能上,「連字結構」表現了對比的功能,因漢語傾向簡潔,所以引導出比例較高的「隱性對比項」。我們進一步觀察「顯隱性對比項」與「前後景」理論的互動,發現出現上文的顯性對比項,即「前顯後景句」,其功用為替焦點連字結構鋪陳背景,因此出現頻率高。而另一方面,出現在「連字結構」上下文中帶隱性對比項的「隱性對比句」與出現在「連字結構」下文帶顯性對比項的「後顯前景句」兩者之間,亦因漢語傾向簡潔,故前者的出現頻率為高。 其次,在篇章上「連字結構」的「非主題連續性」出現頻率較高。本文進一步審視,發現「非主題連續性」居多的原因,是因為其多為焦點句,而焦點為溝通中的最重要信息,顯示「連字結構」乃以溝通為取向。再者,漢語指稱詞在「連字結構」的篇章分布是以標記同一事件,鞏固話題連續性的零代詞使用頻率最高。最後,在篇章連貫方面,「連字結構」的使用往往是對上文的內容展開更進一步闡釋與敘述,即表「遞進關係」。 在語用方面,本研究認為具引導碼功能之「連字結構」中的「連」引導出「極端值」,而「也/都」後則引導出「反預期」的情況。因此,正如上文所說,「連字結構」乃以溝通為取向,可對受話者提供最多信息(清楚),同時也為發話者省去多餘信息(簡潔)。此外,「連字結構」多與帶有反預期功能的義務情態否定詞共現,表提醒、警告、規定、禁止等功能。 筆者根據以上研究成果,評析八套臺灣及美國目前通行的華語教材,並針對程度為初中級的英語母語學習者進行教材與教案設計。
The present thesis has adopted the theoretical framework of Halliday’s metafunctions which encompasses ideational, textual, and interpersonal functions (Halliday 1985, 1994, 2004). Within this framework, the discourse and pragmatic aspects of the Lian structure and their interrelatedness are explored. Additionally, the results of this study are applied for pedagogical purposes. This study is substantiated by empirical data, composed of 601 written data from Taiwan. It maintains that the functor Lian in the Lian structure is a focus marker at the discourse level, rather than a preposition at the syntactic level. In discourse, the Lian structure presents a contrastive function, but the second (implicit) item to be contrasted is often omitted in the context that follows due to the fact that Chinese tends to be terse in its expressions. Additionally, the researcher has further explored the interactions between the explicit and implicit contrastive items and the grounding theories, and has discovered that “the initial implicit-background sentence” has a higher proportion because it functions to provide helpful background information that paves the way for the incoming Lian structure, which is the focus to be presented in the sentence. Moreover, it is found in this study that between the two types of sentences that follow the Lian structure, namely “the following implicit sentence” and “the following explicit-foreground sentence”, the former has a higher proportion due to the same economical principle of terseness in Chinese. Next, in terms of whether the topic is continued in discourse that follows the Lian structure, it is found in this study that topic discontinuity has a higher frequency of occurrence. An additional analysis further reveals that these topic discontinued sentences are largely focussentences, focus being the most important message in communication, and suggests that the Lian structure is communicatively oriented. Moreover, it is found that the Chinese “zero anaphor” in the Lian structure exhibits the highest frequency of occurrence, more than any other Chinese referential expressions, in order to tighten the continuity of the topic. Finally, in terms of coherence at the discourse level, the Lian structure is most frequently used to elaborate on additional details of the previous point, and thus displays an incremental relationship. At the pragmatic level, this study suggests that “Lian” and “Ye/Dou” in the Lian structure serves as relevant procedural encoders that help the reader/listener to focus on and infer the right direction of the communicative flow. The functor Lian encodes an extreme value in a given category, whereas and the marker Ye/Dou encodes a counter-expected situation. Thus, as mentioned above, the Lian structure is communicatively oriented, and the focus is placed on being maximally informative (i.e. clarity) for the listener and minimally redundant (i.e. terseness) for the speaker (Grice 1975, Sperber and Wilson 1986, 1995). In addition, the Lian structure frequently appears to co-occur with negative words that carry deontic modality, such as reminding, warning, regulating, and prohibiting. At the pedagogical level, based on the multi-level linguistic analysis in this study, eight L2 Chinese textbooks that are commonly used in Taiwan and the U.S. are reviewed. It is followed by a teaching material of the Lian structure, and a simple lesson plan is further devised for the low-Intermediate native English-speaking learners of Chinese.
Other Identifiers: G060080011I
Appears in Collections:學位論文

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